The Neotropical species of the genus Neurigona Rondani (Diptera: Dolichopodidae) are revised, comprising 39 species of which 32 are described as new. Descriptions, illustrations and keys to species and species-groups are given. The following species are described as new (spec. nov.): alajuela (Costa Rica), albitarsis (Costa Rica), aragua (Venezuela), argentifacies (Costa Rica, Brazil), brevitibia (Venezuela, Peru, Brazil), cantareira (Brazil), crinitarsis (Mexico), guanacasta (Costa Rica), hachaensis (Costa Rica), lamellata (Costa Rica, Panama, Honduras), latifacies (Costa Rica), limonensis (Costa Rica, Venezuela), longipalpa (Costa Rica), longitarsis (Costa Rica), maculosa (Tobago, Panama), magnipalpa (Costa Rica), micra (Costa Rica), montebello (Mexico), nervosa (Costa Rica), obscurata (Mexico), pitilla (Costa Rica), plumitarsis (Costa Rica), pressitarsis (Venezuela), procera (Honduras), pseudobanksi (Brazil), purulha (Guatemala), sirena (Costa Rica, Panama, Venezuela, Guyana, Peru, Brazil), starki (Venezuela), subnervosa (Mexico, Guatemala), tatumbia (Mexico, Honduras), tenuicauda (Venezuela), yacambo (Venezuela). Neurigona banksi Van Duzee has been raised from synonymy. Neurigona brasiliensis (Schiner) and Neurigona derelicta Parent are regarded as nomina dubia. Neurigona and the closely related genus Bickelomyia are defined by several synapomorphies such as the ochreous-yellow body, specialised leg setation, and genitalia characters, but Neurigona remains paraphyletic.