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Transforming growth factor-β pathway activity in glioblastoma


Frei, K; Gramatzki, D; Tritschler, I; Schroeder, J J; Espinoza, L; Rushing, E J; Weller, M (2015). Transforming growth factor-β pathway activity in glioblastoma. OncoTarget, 6(8):5963-5977.

Abstract

Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β is a central molecule maintaining the malignant phenotype of glioblastoma. Anti-TGF-β strategies are currently being explored in early clinical trials. Yet, there is little contemporary data on the differential expression of TGF-β isoforms at the mRNA and protein level or TGF-β/Smad pathway activity in glioblastomas in vivo.Here we studied 64 newly diagnosed and 16 recurrent glioblastomas for the expression of TGF-β1-3, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-B, and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 mRNA by RT-PCR and for the levels of TGF-β1-3 protein, phosphorylated Smad2 (pSmad2), pSmad1/5/8 and PAI-1 by immunohistochemistry.Among the TGF-β isoforms, TGF-β1 mRNA was the most, whereas TGF-β3 mRNA was the least abundant. TGF-β1-3 mRNA expression was strongly correlated, as was the expression of TGF-β1-3 mRNA, and of the TGF-β1-3 target genes, PDGF-B and PAI-1. TGF-β2 and TGF-β3 protein levels correlated well, whereas the comparison of the other TGF-βisoforms did not. Positive correlation was also observed between TGF-β1 and pSmad1/5/8 and between pSmad2 and pSmad1/5/8. Survival analyses indicated that a group of patients with high expression levels of TGF-β2 mRNA or pSmad1/5/8 protein have inferior outcome.We thus provide potential biomarkers for patient stratification in clinical trials of anti-TGF-β therapies in glioblastoma.

Abstract

Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β is a central molecule maintaining the malignant phenotype of glioblastoma. Anti-TGF-β strategies are currently being explored in early clinical trials. Yet, there is little contemporary data on the differential expression of TGF-β isoforms at the mRNA and protein level or TGF-β/Smad pathway activity in glioblastomas in vivo.Here we studied 64 newly diagnosed and 16 recurrent glioblastomas for the expression of TGF-β1-3, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-B, and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 mRNA by RT-PCR and for the levels of TGF-β1-3 protein, phosphorylated Smad2 (pSmad2), pSmad1/5/8 and PAI-1 by immunohistochemistry.Among the TGF-β isoforms, TGF-β1 mRNA was the most, whereas TGF-β3 mRNA was the least abundant. TGF-β1-3 mRNA expression was strongly correlated, as was the expression of TGF-β1-3 mRNA, and of the TGF-β1-3 target genes, PDGF-B and PAI-1. TGF-β2 and TGF-β3 protein levels correlated well, whereas the comparison of the other TGF-βisoforms did not. Positive correlation was also observed between TGF-β1 and pSmad1/5/8 and between pSmad2 and pSmad1/5/8. Survival analyses indicated that a group of patients with high expression levels of TGF-β2 mRNA or pSmad1/5/8 protein have inferior outcome.We thus provide potential biomarkers for patient stratification in clinical trials of anti-TGF-β therapies in glioblastoma.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Neurology
04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Institute of Neuropathology
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:20 March 2015
Deposited On:11 Dec 2015 14:39
Last Modified:21 Aug 2017 21:59
Publisher:Impact Journals, LLC
ISSN:1949-2553
Free access at:PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.3467
PubMed ID:25849941

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