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Variables that influence Ironman triathlon performance - what changed in the last 35 years?


Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Raphael; Stiefel, Michael; Zingg, Matthias Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Rüst, Christoph Alexander (2015). Variables that influence Ironman triathlon performance - what changed in the last 35 years? Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine, 6:277-290.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

This narrative review summarizes findings for Ironman triathlon performance and intends to determine potential predictor variables for Ironman race performance in female and male triathletes.

METHODS

A literature search was performed in PubMed using the terms "Ironman", "triathlon", and "performance". All resulting articles were searched for related citations.

RESULTS

Age, previous experience, sex, training, origin, anthropometric and physiological characteristics, pacing, and performance in split disciplines were predictive. Differences exist between the sexes for anthropometric characteristics. The most important predictive variables for a fast Ironman race time were age of 30-35 years (women and men), a fast personal best time in Olympic distance triathlon (women and men), a fast personal best time in marathon (women and men), high volume and high speed in training where high volume was more important than high speed (women and men), low body fat, low skin-fold thicknesses and low circumference of upper arm (only men), and origin from the United States of America (women and men).

CONCLUSION

These findings may help athletes and coaches to plan an Ironman triathlon career. Age and previous experience are important to find the right point in the life of a triathlete to switch from the shorter triathlon distances to the Ironman distance. Future studies need to correlate physiological characteristics such as maximum oxygen uptake with Ironman race time to investigate their potential predictive value and to investigate socio-economic aspects in Ironman triathlon.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

This narrative review summarizes findings for Ironman triathlon performance and intends to determine potential predictor variables for Ironman race performance in female and male triathletes.

METHODS

A literature search was performed in PubMed using the terms "Ironman", "triathlon", and "performance". All resulting articles were searched for related citations.

RESULTS

Age, previous experience, sex, training, origin, anthropometric and physiological characteristics, pacing, and performance in split disciplines were predictive. Differences exist between the sexes for anthropometric characteristics. The most important predictive variables for a fast Ironman race time were age of 30-35 years (women and men), a fast personal best time in Olympic distance triathlon (women and men), a fast personal best time in marathon (women and men), high volume and high speed in training where high volume was more important than high speed (women and men), low body fat, low skin-fold thicknesses and low circumference of upper arm (only men), and origin from the United States of America (women and men).

CONCLUSION

These findings may help athletes and coaches to plan an Ironman triathlon career. Age and previous experience are important to find the right point in the life of a triathlete to switch from the shorter triathlon distances to the Ironman distance. Future studies need to correlate physiological characteristics such as maximum oxygen uptake with Ironman race time to investigate their potential predictive value and to investigate socio-economic aspects in Ironman triathlon.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Institute of General Practice
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:2015
Deposited On:16 Sep 2015 10:27
Last Modified:08 Dec 2017 14:00
Publisher:Dove Medical Press Ltd.
ISSN:1179-1543
Free access at:PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.2147/OAJSM.S85310
PubMed ID:26346992

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