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The importance of stress, self-efficacy, and self-medication for pharmacological neuroenhancement among employees and students


Maier, Larissa J; Haug, Severin; Schaub, Michael P (2015). The importance of stress, self-efficacy, and self-medication for pharmacological neuroenhancement among employees and students. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 156:221-227.

Abstract

Objectives: This study examined the relationship between stress, self-efficacy, self-medication, and pharmacological neuroenhancement (PNE) in the Swiss general population.
Methods: Using the largest Swiss Internet panel, a sample of 10,171 employees and students (unweighted N = 10,084) aged 15 to 74 years was recruited and asked to complete a self-administered online survey. The data were weighted for age, sex, and language region to provide results that were representative of the Swiss population. Multinomial logistic regression models were conducted to identify predictors of pharmacological cognitive enhancement (PCE) and pharmacological mood enhancement (PME) over the past year. Two self-medication models and an overall model were determined.
Results: Current medical treatment for a mental disorder was the best predictor of both PCE and PME use as serious self-medication. The overall model revealed that cannabis use, frequent stress, and long-term stress were predictors of both PCE and PME, whereas negative stressors and time pressure at work did not remain in the final model. Furthermore, past-year PCE with and without PME was associated with being male, being a student, and using illegal drugs other than cannabis, whereas being female and having low self-efficacy predicted past-year PME only.
Conclusions: Consideration of the predictor variables identified in this study may help to identify the potential PCE and PME users for whom measures to prevent drug abuse and manage stress are most appropriate. More specifically, the use of PCE and PME as self-medication to enhance performance at work or while studying needs further consideration in the neuroenhancement debate.

Abstract

Objectives: This study examined the relationship between stress, self-efficacy, self-medication, and pharmacological neuroenhancement (PNE) in the Swiss general population.
Methods: Using the largest Swiss Internet panel, a sample of 10,171 employees and students (unweighted N = 10,084) aged 15 to 74 years was recruited and asked to complete a self-administered online survey. The data were weighted for age, sex, and language region to provide results that were representative of the Swiss population. Multinomial logistic regression models were conducted to identify predictors of pharmacological cognitive enhancement (PCE) and pharmacological mood enhancement (PME) over the past year. Two self-medication models and an overall model were determined.
Results: Current medical treatment for a mental disorder was the best predictor of both PCE and PME use as serious self-medication. The overall model revealed that cannabis use, frequent stress, and long-term stress were predictors of both PCE and PME, whereas negative stressors and time pressure at work did not remain in the final model. Furthermore, past-year PCE with and without PME was associated with being male, being a student, and using illegal drugs other than cannabis, whereas being female and having low self-efficacy predicted past-year PME only.
Conclusions: Consideration of the predictor variables identified in this study may help to identify the potential PCE and PME users for whom measures to prevent drug abuse and manage stress are most appropriate. More specifically, the use of PCE and PME as self-medication to enhance performance at work or while studying needs further consideration in the neuroenhancement debate.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Swiss Research Institute for Public Health and Addiction
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Uncontrolled Keywords:Neuroenhancement; Cognitive enhancement; Mood enhancement; Self-medication; Illegal drug use; Mental health
Language:English
Date:2015
Deposited On:09 Oct 2015 16:23
Last Modified:26 Sep 2016 00:00
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:0376-8716
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2015.09.012

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