Header

UZH-Logo

Maintenance Infos

The effect of iron-fortified complementary food and intermittent preventive treatment of malaria on anaemia in 12- to 36-month-old children: a cluster-randomised controlled trial


Glinz, Dominik; Hurrell, Richard F; Ouattara, Mamadou; Zimmermann, Michael B; Brittenham, Gary M; Adiossan, Lukas G; Righetti, Aurélie A; Seifert, Burkhardt; Diakité, Victorine G; Utzinger, Jürg; N'Goran, Eliézer K; Wegmüller, Rita (2015). The effect of iron-fortified complementary food and intermittent preventive treatment of malaria on anaemia in 12- to 36-month-old children: a cluster-randomised controlled trial. Malaria Journal, 14(1):347.

Abstract

BACKGROUND Iron deficiency (ID) and malaria co-exist in tropical regions and both contribute to high rates of anaemia in young children. It is unclear whether iron fortification combined with intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) of malaria would be an efficacious strategy for reducing anaemia in young children. METHODS A 9-month cluster-randomised, single-blinded, placebo-controlled intervention trial was carried out in children aged 12-36 months in south-central Côte d'Ivoire, an area of intense and perennial malaria transmission. The study groups were: group 1: normal diet and IPT-placebo (n = 125); group 2: consumption of porridge, an iron-fortified complementary food (CF) with optimised composition providing 2 mg iron as NaFeEDTA and 3.8 mg iron as ferrous fumarate 6 days per week (CF-FeFum) and IPT-placebo (n = 126); group 3: IPT of malaria at 3-month intervals, using sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and amodiaquine and no dietary intervention (n = 127); group 4: both CF-FeFum and IPT (n = 124); and group 5: consumption of porridge, an iron-fortified CF with the composition currently on the Ivorian market providing 2 mg iron as NaFeEDTA and 3.8 mg iron as ferric pyrophosphate 6 days per week (CF-FePP) and IPT-placebo (n = 127). The primary outcome was haemoglobin (Hb) concentration. Linear and logistic regression mixed-effect models were used for the comparison of the five study groups, and a 2 × 2 factorial analysis was used to assess treatment interactions of CF-FeFum and IPT (study groups 1-4). RESULTS After 9 months, the Hb concentration increased in all groups to a similar extent with no statistically significant difference between groups. In the 2 × 2 factorial analysis after 9 months, no treatment interaction was found on Hb (P = 0.89). The adjusted differences in Hb were 0.24 g/dl (95 % CI -0.10 to 0.59; P = 0.16) in children receiving IPT and -0.08 g/dl (95 % CI -0.42 to 0.26; P = 0.65) in children receiving CF-FeFum. At baseline, anaemia (Hb <11.0 g/dl) was 82.1 %. After 9 months, IPT decreased the odds of anaemia (odds ratio [OR], 0.46 [95 % CI 0.23-0.91]; P = 0.023), whereas iron-fortified CF did not (OR, 0.85 [95 % CI 0.43-1.68]; P = 0.68), although ID (plasma ferritin <30 μg/l) was decreased markedly in children receiving iron fortified CF (OR, 0.19 [95 % CI 0.09-0.40]; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS IPT alone only modestly decreased anaemia, but neither IPT nor iron fortified CF significantly improved Hb concentration after 9 months. Additionally, IPT did not augment the effect of the iron fortified CF. CF fortified with highly bioavailable iron improved iron status but not Hb concentration, despite three-monthly IPT of malaria. Thus, further research is necessary to develop effective combination strategies to prevent and treat anaemia in malaria endemic regions.

Abstract

BACKGROUND Iron deficiency (ID) and malaria co-exist in tropical regions and both contribute to high rates of anaemia in young children. It is unclear whether iron fortification combined with intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) of malaria would be an efficacious strategy for reducing anaemia in young children. METHODS A 9-month cluster-randomised, single-blinded, placebo-controlled intervention trial was carried out in children aged 12-36 months in south-central Côte d'Ivoire, an area of intense and perennial malaria transmission. The study groups were: group 1: normal diet and IPT-placebo (n = 125); group 2: consumption of porridge, an iron-fortified complementary food (CF) with optimised composition providing 2 mg iron as NaFeEDTA and 3.8 mg iron as ferrous fumarate 6 days per week (CF-FeFum) and IPT-placebo (n = 126); group 3: IPT of malaria at 3-month intervals, using sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and amodiaquine and no dietary intervention (n = 127); group 4: both CF-FeFum and IPT (n = 124); and group 5: consumption of porridge, an iron-fortified CF with the composition currently on the Ivorian market providing 2 mg iron as NaFeEDTA and 3.8 mg iron as ferric pyrophosphate 6 days per week (CF-FePP) and IPT-placebo (n = 127). The primary outcome was haemoglobin (Hb) concentration. Linear and logistic regression mixed-effect models were used for the comparison of the five study groups, and a 2 × 2 factorial analysis was used to assess treatment interactions of CF-FeFum and IPT (study groups 1-4). RESULTS After 9 months, the Hb concentration increased in all groups to a similar extent with no statistically significant difference between groups. In the 2 × 2 factorial analysis after 9 months, no treatment interaction was found on Hb (P = 0.89). The adjusted differences in Hb were 0.24 g/dl (95 % CI -0.10 to 0.59; P = 0.16) in children receiving IPT and -0.08 g/dl (95 % CI -0.42 to 0.26; P = 0.65) in children receiving CF-FeFum. At baseline, anaemia (Hb <11.0 g/dl) was 82.1 %. After 9 months, IPT decreased the odds of anaemia (odds ratio [OR], 0.46 [95 % CI 0.23-0.91]; P = 0.023), whereas iron-fortified CF did not (OR, 0.85 [95 % CI 0.43-1.68]; P = 0.68), although ID (plasma ferritin <30 μg/l) was decreased markedly in children receiving iron fortified CF (OR, 0.19 [95 % CI 0.09-0.40]; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS IPT alone only modestly decreased anaemia, but neither IPT nor iron fortified CF significantly improved Hb concentration after 9 months. Additionally, IPT did not augment the effect of the iron fortified CF. CF fortified with highly bioavailable iron improved iron status but not Hb concentration, despite three-monthly IPT of malaria. Thus, further research is necessary to develop effective combination strategies to prevent and treat anaemia in malaria endemic regions.

Statistics

Citations

5 citations in Web of Science®
6 citations in Scopus®
Google Scholar™

Altmetrics

Downloads

35 downloads since deposited on 29 Oct 2015
18 downloads since 12 months
Detailed statistics

Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Prevention Institute (EBPI)
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:2015
Deposited On:29 Oct 2015 06:54
Last Modified:09 Aug 2017 07:54
Publisher:BioMed Central
ISSN:1475-2875
Free access at:PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1186/s12936-015-0872-3
PubMed ID:26377199

Download

Preview Icon on Download
Preview
Content: Published Version
Filetype: PDF
Size: 1MB
View at publisher
Licence: Creative Commons: Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)

Article Networks

TrendTerms

TrendTerms displays relevant terms of the abstract of this publication and related documents on a map. The terms and their relations were extracted from ZORA using word statistics. Their timelines are taken from ZORA as well. The bubble size of a term is proportional to the number of documents where the term occurs. Red, orange, yellow and green colors are used for terms that occur in the current document; red indicates high interlinkedness of a term with other terms, orange, yellow and green decreasing interlinkedness. Blue is used for terms that have a relation with the terms in this document, but occur in other documents.
You can navigate and zoom the map. Mouse-hovering a term displays its timeline, clicking it yields the associated documents.

Author Collaborations