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Differential effects of fluvoxamine and other antidepressants on the biotransformation of melatonin


Härtter, S; Wang, X; Weigmann, H; Friedberg, T; Arand, M; Oesch, F; Hiemke, C (2001). Differential effects of fluvoxamine and other antidepressants on the biotransformation of melatonin. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 21(2):167-174.

Abstract

Melatonin, the predominant product of the pineal gland, is involved in the maintenance of diurnal rhythms. Nocturnal blood concentrations of melatonin have been shown to be enhanced by fluvoxamine, but not by other serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Because fluvoxamine is an inhibitor of several cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, the authors studied the biotransformation of melatonin and the effects of fluvoxamine on the metabolism of melatonin in vitro using human liver microsomes and recombinant human CYP isoenzymes. Melatonin was found to be almost exclusively metabolized by CYP1A2 to 6-hydroxymelatonin and N-acetylserotonin with a minimal contribution of CYP2C19. Both reactions were potently inhibited by fluvoxamine, with a Ki of 0.02 microM for the formation of 6-hydroxymelatonin and 0.05 microM for the formation of N-acetylserotonin. Other than fluvoxamine, fluoxetine, paroxetine, citalopram, imipramine, and desipramine were also tested at 2 and 20 microM. Among the other antidepressants, only paroxetine was able to affect the metabolism of melatonin at supratherapeutic concentrations of 20 microM, which did not reach by far the magnitude of the inhibitory potency of fluvoxamine. The authors concluded that fluvoxamine is a potent inhibitor of melatonin degradation. Because this inhibitory action is also found in vivo, fluvoxamine might be used as an enhancer of melatonin, which might offer new therapeutic possibilities of fluvoxamine.

Abstract

Melatonin, the predominant product of the pineal gland, is involved in the maintenance of diurnal rhythms. Nocturnal blood concentrations of melatonin have been shown to be enhanced by fluvoxamine, but not by other serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Because fluvoxamine is an inhibitor of several cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, the authors studied the biotransformation of melatonin and the effects of fluvoxamine on the metabolism of melatonin in vitro using human liver microsomes and recombinant human CYP isoenzymes. Melatonin was found to be almost exclusively metabolized by CYP1A2 to 6-hydroxymelatonin and N-acetylserotonin with a minimal contribution of CYP2C19. Both reactions were potently inhibited by fluvoxamine, with a Ki of 0.02 microM for the formation of 6-hydroxymelatonin and 0.05 microM for the formation of N-acetylserotonin. Other than fluvoxamine, fluoxetine, paroxetine, citalopram, imipramine, and desipramine were also tested at 2 and 20 microM. Among the other antidepressants, only paroxetine was able to affect the metabolism of melatonin at supratherapeutic concentrations of 20 microM, which did not reach by far the magnitude of the inhibitory potency of fluvoxamine. The authors concluded that fluvoxamine is a potent inhibitor of melatonin degradation. Because this inhibitory action is also found in vivo, fluvoxamine might be used as an enhancer of melatonin, which might offer new therapeutic possibilities of fluvoxamine.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology
07 Faculty of Science > Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
610 Medicine & health
Date:April 2001
Deposited On:22 Oct 2015 13:21
Last Modified:28 Apr 2017 01:17
Publisher:Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
ISSN:0271-0749
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1097/00004714-200104000-00008
PubMed ID:11270913

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