Differential effects of perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) on rat liver UDP-glucuronosyltransferase isoenzymes have been observed after a single i.p. administration of the compound to young male Sprague-Dawley rats. (1) Bilirubin glucuronidation was induced 2-fold. The induced state was stable for at least 3 weeks. (2) Glucuronidation of 1-naphthol, morphine and testosterone was decreased to half of the control values. These decreases were maximal after 12 days but all three activities returned to normal levels after 3 weeks. (3) Immunoblotting experiments indicated that the differential effects of PFDA on UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activities were due to modulation of enzyme protein concentrations rather than activation/inactivation mechanisms. With respect to its influence on UDP-glucuronosyltransferase isoenzymes, PFDA may be classified as a clofibrate-type inducer. The persistence of the induction after a single application however is unique among peroxisome proliferators and therefore PFDA may be a useful, elective inducer of bilirubin glucuronidation.