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Dividing a complex reaction involving a hypervalent iodine reagent into three limiting mechanisms byab initiomolecular dynamics


Sala, Oliver; Lüthi, Hans Peter; Togni, Antonio; Iannuzzi, Marcella; Hutter, Jürg (2015). Dividing a complex reaction involving a hypervalent iodine reagent into three limiting mechanisms byab initiomolecular dynamics. Journal of Computational Chemistry, 36(11):785-794.

Abstract

The electrophilic N-trifluoromethylation of MeCN with a hypervalent iodine reagent to form a nitrilium ion, that is rapidly trapped by an azole nucleophile, is thought to occur via reductive elimination (RE). A recent study showed that, depending on the solvent representation, the S(N)2 is favoured to a different extent over the RE. However, there is a discriminative solvent effect present, which calls for a statistical mechanics approach to fully account for the entropic contributions. In this study, we perform metadynamic simulations for two trifluoromethylation reactions (with N- and S-nucleophiles), showing that the RE mechanism is always favoured in MeCN solution. These computations also indicate that a radical mechanism (single electron transfer) may play an important role. The computational protocol based on accelerated molecular dynamics for the exploration of the free energy surface is transferable and will be applied to similar reactions to investigate other electrophiles on the reagent. Based on the activation parameters determined, this approach also gives insight into the mechanistic details of the trifluoromethylation and shows that these commonly known mechanisms mark the limits within which the reaction proceeds.

Abstract

The electrophilic N-trifluoromethylation of MeCN with a hypervalent iodine reagent to form a nitrilium ion, that is rapidly trapped by an azole nucleophile, is thought to occur via reductive elimination (RE). A recent study showed that, depending on the solvent representation, the S(N)2 is favoured to a different extent over the RE. However, there is a discriminative solvent effect present, which calls for a statistical mechanics approach to fully account for the entropic contributions. In this study, we perform metadynamic simulations for two trifluoromethylation reactions (with N- and S-nucleophiles), showing that the RE mechanism is always favoured in MeCN solution. These computations also indicate that a radical mechanism (single electron transfer) may play an important role. The computational protocol based on accelerated molecular dynamics for the exploration of the free energy surface is transferable and will be applied to similar reactions to investigate other electrophiles on the reagent. Based on the activation parameters determined, this approach also gives insight into the mechanistic details of the trifluoromethylation and shows that these commonly known mechanisms mark the limits within which the reaction proceeds.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:07 Faculty of Science > Department of Chemistry
Dewey Decimal Classification:540 Chemistry
Language:English
Date:2015
Deposited On:21 Dec 2015 14:02
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 19:30
Publisher:Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Inc.
ISSN:0192-8651
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1002/jcc.23857
PubMed ID:25766580

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