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Upright weight-bearing CT of the knee during flexion: changes of the patellofemoral and tibiofemoral articulations between 0° and 120°


Hirschmann, Anna; Buck, Florian M; Herschel, Ramin; Pfirrmann, Christian W A; Fucentese, Sandro F (2017). Upright weight-bearing CT of the knee during flexion: changes of the patellofemoral and tibiofemoral articulations between 0° and 120°. Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy, 25(3):853-862.

Abstract

PURPOSE To prospectively compare patellofemoral and tibiofemoral articulations in the upright weight-bearing position with different degrees of flexion using CT in order to gain a more thorough understanding of the development of diseases of the knee joint in a physiological position.
MATERIALS AND METHODS CT scans of the knee in 0°, 30°, 60° flexion in the upright weight-bearing position and in 120° flexion upright without weight-bearing were obtained of 10 volunteers (mean age 33.7 ± 6.1 years; range 24-41) using a cone-beam extremity-CT. Two independent readers quantified tibiofemoral and patellofemoral rotation, tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove distance (TTTG) and patellofemoral distance. Tibiofemoral contact points were assessed in relation to the anteroposterior distance of the tibial plateau. Significant differences between degrees of flexion were sought using Wilcoxon signed-rank test (P < 0.05).
RESULTS With higher degrees of flexion, internal tibiofemoral rotation increased (0°/120° flexion; mean, 0.5° ± 4.5/22.4° ± 7.6); external patellofemoral rotation decreased (10.6° ± 7.6/1.6° ± 4.2); TTTG decreased (11.1 mm ±3.7/-2.4 mm ±6.4) and patellofemoral distance decreased (38.7 mm ±3.0/21.0 mm ±7.0). The CP shifted posterior, more pronounced laterally. Significant differences were found for all measurements at all degrees of flexion (P = 0.005-0.037), except between 30° and 60°. ICC was almost perfect (0.80-0.99), except for the assessment of the CP (0.20-0.96).
CONCLUSION Knee joint articulations change significantly during flexion using upright weight-bearing CT. Progressive internal tibiofemoral rotation leads to a decrease in the TTTG and a posterior shift of the contact points in higher degrees of flexion. This elucidates patellar malalignment predominantly close to extension and meniscal tears commonly affecting the posterior horns.

Abstract

PURPOSE To prospectively compare patellofemoral and tibiofemoral articulations in the upright weight-bearing position with different degrees of flexion using CT in order to gain a more thorough understanding of the development of diseases of the knee joint in a physiological position.
MATERIALS AND METHODS CT scans of the knee in 0°, 30°, 60° flexion in the upright weight-bearing position and in 120° flexion upright without weight-bearing were obtained of 10 volunteers (mean age 33.7 ± 6.1 years; range 24-41) using a cone-beam extremity-CT. Two independent readers quantified tibiofemoral and patellofemoral rotation, tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove distance (TTTG) and patellofemoral distance. Tibiofemoral contact points were assessed in relation to the anteroposterior distance of the tibial plateau. Significant differences between degrees of flexion were sought using Wilcoxon signed-rank test (P < 0.05).
RESULTS With higher degrees of flexion, internal tibiofemoral rotation increased (0°/120° flexion; mean, 0.5° ± 4.5/22.4° ± 7.6); external patellofemoral rotation decreased (10.6° ± 7.6/1.6° ± 4.2); TTTG decreased (11.1 mm ±3.7/-2.4 mm ±6.4) and patellofemoral distance decreased (38.7 mm ±3.0/21.0 mm ±7.0). The CP shifted posterior, more pronounced laterally. Significant differences were found for all measurements at all degrees of flexion (P = 0.005-0.037), except between 30° and 60°. ICC was almost perfect (0.80-0.99), except for the assessment of the CP (0.20-0.96).
CONCLUSION Knee joint articulations change significantly during flexion using upright weight-bearing CT. Progressive internal tibiofemoral rotation leads to a decrease in the TTTG and a posterior shift of the contact points in higher degrees of flexion. This elucidates patellar malalignment predominantly close to extension and meniscal tears commonly affecting the posterior horns.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Balgrist University Hospital, Swiss Spinal Cord Injury Center
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:German
Date:2017
Deposited On:19 Nov 2015 11:22
Last Modified:02 Mar 2017 02:00
Publisher:Springer
ISSN:0942-2056
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1007/s00167-015-3853-8
PubMed ID:26537597

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