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Outcome of youth with early-phase schizophrenia-spectrum disorders and psychosis not otherwise specified treated with second-generation antipsychotics: 12 week results from a prospective, naturalistic cohort study


Vernal, Ditte L; Kapoor, Sandeep; Al-Jadiri, Aseel; Sheridan, Eva M; Borenstein, Yehonathan; Mormando, Charles; David, Lisa; Singh, Sukhbir; Seidman, Andrew J; Carbon, Maren; Gerstenberg, Miriam; Saito, Ema; Kane, John M; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Correll, Christoph U (2015). Outcome of youth with early-phase schizophrenia-spectrum disorders and psychosis not otherwise specified treated with second-generation antipsychotics: 12 week results from a prospective, naturalistic cohort study. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, 25(7):535-547.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study was to assess differences in the outcomes of youth with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (SCZ-S) and psychotic disorder not otherwise specified (PsyNOS) during early antipsychotic treatment. METHODS The study was a prospective, naturalistic, inception cohort study of youth ≤19 years old with SCZ-S (schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, schizophreniform disorder) or PsyNOS (PsyNOS, brief psychotic disorder) and ≤24 months of lifetime antipsychotic treatment receiving clinician's choice antipsychotic treatment. Baseline demographic, illness and treatment variables, and effectiveness outcomes were compared at 12 weeks last-observation-carried-forward across SCZ-S and PsyNOS patients, adjusting for significantly different baseline variables. RESULTS Altogether, 130 youth with SCZ-S (n=42) or PsyNOS (n=88), mostly antipsychotic naïve (76.9%), were prescribed risperidone (47.7%), olanzapine (19.2%), aripiprazole (14.6%), quetiapine (11.5%), or ziprasidone (6.9%). Compared with those with PsyNOS, SCZ-S youth were older (16.4±2.1 vs. 14.8±3.2, p=0.0040), and less likely to be Caucasian (19.1% vs. 42.5%, p=0.009). At baseline, SCZ-S patients had significantly higher Clinical Global Impressions-Severity (CGI-S) scores (6.0±0.9 vs. 5.5±0.8, p=0.0018) and lower Children's Global Assessment Scale (CGAS) scores (29.6±9.2 vs. 36.1±8.9, p=0.0002) and were more likely to be in the severely ill CGAS group (i.e., CGAS≤40). SCZ-S and PsyNOS patients did not differ regarding all-cause discontinuation (40.5 vs. 40.3%. p=0.49), discontinuation because of adverse effects (12.2% vs. 12.4%, p=0.97), or nonadherence (29.3% vs. 30.9%, p=0.88), but somewhat more SCZ-S patients discontinued treatment for inefficacy (19.5% vs. 7.4%, p=0.063). CGI-S and CGAS scores improved significantly in both diagnostic groups (p=0.0001, each). Adjusting for baseline differences, PsyNOS patients experienced significantly better CGI-I improvement (CGI-I) scores (p=0.012) and more frequently reached higher categorical CGAS group status (p=0.021) than SCZ-S patients. CONCLUSIONS Both youth with SCZ-S and those with PsyNOS experienced significant improvements with clinician's choice antipsychotic treatment. However, treatment discontinuation was common within 12 weeks, with greater inefficacy-related discontinuation in the SCZ-S group, whereas CGI-I and CGAS score-based improvements were greater in the PsyNOS group.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study was to assess differences in the outcomes of youth with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (SCZ-S) and psychotic disorder not otherwise specified (PsyNOS) during early antipsychotic treatment. METHODS The study was a prospective, naturalistic, inception cohort study of youth ≤19 years old with SCZ-S (schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, schizophreniform disorder) or PsyNOS (PsyNOS, brief psychotic disorder) and ≤24 months of lifetime antipsychotic treatment receiving clinician's choice antipsychotic treatment. Baseline demographic, illness and treatment variables, and effectiveness outcomes were compared at 12 weeks last-observation-carried-forward across SCZ-S and PsyNOS patients, adjusting for significantly different baseline variables. RESULTS Altogether, 130 youth with SCZ-S (n=42) or PsyNOS (n=88), mostly antipsychotic naïve (76.9%), were prescribed risperidone (47.7%), olanzapine (19.2%), aripiprazole (14.6%), quetiapine (11.5%), or ziprasidone (6.9%). Compared with those with PsyNOS, SCZ-S youth were older (16.4±2.1 vs. 14.8±3.2, p=0.0040), and less likely to be Caucasian (19.1% vs. 42.5%, p=0.009). At baseline, SCZ-S patients had significantly higher Clinical Global Impressions-Severity (CGI-S) scores (6.0±0.9 vs. 5.5±0.8, p=0.0018) and lower Children's Global Assessment Scale (CGAS) scores (29.6±9.2 vs. 36.1±8.9, p=0.0002) and were more likely to be in the severely ill CGAS group (i.e., CGAS≤40). SCZ-S and PsyNOS patients did not differ regarding all-cause discontinuation (40.5 vs. 40.3%. p=0.49), discontinuation because of adverse effects (12.2% vs. 12.4%, p=0.97), or nonadherence (29.3% vs. 30.9%, p=0.88), but somewhat more SCZ-S patients discontinued treatment for inefficacy (19.5% vs. 7.4%, p=0.063). CGI-S and CGAS scores improved significantly in both diagnostic groups (p=0.0001, each). Adjusting for baseline differences, PsyNOS patients experienced significantly better CGI-I improvement (CGI-I) scores (p=0.012) and more frequently reached higher categorical CGAS group status (p=0.021) than SCZ-S patients. CONCLUSIONS Both youth with SCZ-S and those with PsyNOS experienced significant improvements with clinician's choice antipsychotic treatment. However, treatment discontinuation was common within 12 weeks, with greater inefficacy-related discontinuation in the SCZ-S group, whereas CGI-I and CGAS score-based improvements were greater in the PsyNOS group.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Psychiatric University Hospital Zurich > Center for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:September 2015
Deposited On:11 Dec 2015 16:05
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 19:37
Publisher:Mary Ann Liebert
ISSN:1044-5463
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1089/cap.2014.0164
PubMed ID:26375767

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