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Intrathoracic pressure swings induced by simulated obstructive sleep apnoea promote arrhythmias in paroxysmal atrial fibrillation


Schlatzer, Christian; Schwarz, Esther I; Sievi, Noriane A; Clarenbach, Christian F; Gaisl, Thomas; Haegeli, Laurent M; Duru, Firat; Stradling, John R; Kohler, Malcolm (2016). Intrathoracic pressure swings induced by simulated obstructive sleep apnoea promote arrhythmias in paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. Europace, 18(1):64-70.

Abstract

AIMS: There is preliminary evidence for a link between obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and arrhythmias such as paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF) and sudden cardiac death but underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown.
METHODS AND RESULTS: In this interventional crossover study, we evaluated whether intrathoracic pressure changes, induced by simulated OSA, trigger premature cardiac beats, and alter measures of ventricular repolarization [QTc and Tpeak-to-Tend (TpTec) intervals] in patients with PAF. 12-Lead-electrocardiograms were recorded continuously in 44 patients, while simulating obstructive apnoea (Mueller manoeuvre, MM), obstructive hypopnoea (inspiration through a threshold load, ITH), end-expiratory central apnoea (AP), and during normal breathing (NB) in randomized order. The prevalence of OSA in these 44 patients was assessed by a sleep study. Atrial premature beats (APBs) occurred more frequently during MM (55% of patients) and ITH (32%), but not during AP (14%), compared with NB (9%) (P < 0.001, P = 0.006 and P = 0.688, respectively). Mueller manoeuvre led to a significant prolongation of QTc and TpTec intervals (+17.3 ms, P < 0.001 and +4.3 ms, P = 0.005). Inspiration through a threshold load significantly increased QTc (+9.6 ms, P < 0.001) but not TpTec. End-expiratory central apnoea did not alter QTc and TpTec intervals. According to the sleep study, 56% of patients had OSA (apnoea hypopnoea index ≥5).
CONCLUSION: Simulated OSA induces APBs which may be important in patients with PAF, because the majority of episodes of PAF has been shown to be triggered by APBs. Simulated OSA leads to a significant prolongation of ventricular repolarization.

Abstract

AIMS: There is preliminary evidence for a link between obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and arrhythmias such as paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF) and sudden cardiac death but underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown.
METHODS AND RESULTS: In this interventional crossover study, we evaluated whether intrathoracic pressure changes, induced by simulated OSA, trigger premature cardiac beats, and alter measures of ventricular repolarization [QTc and Tpeak-to-Tend (TpTec) intervals] in patients with PAF. 12-Lead-electrocardiograms were recorded continuously in 44 patients, while simulating obstructive apnoea (Mueller manoeuvre, MM), obstructive hypopnoea (inspiration through a threshold load, ITH), end-expiratory central apnoea (AP), and during normal breathing (NB) in randomized order. The prevalence of OSA in these 44 patients was assessed by a sleep study. Atrial premature beats (APBs) occurred more frequently during MM (55% of patients) and ITH (32%), but not during AP (14%), compared with NB (9%) (P < 0.001, P = 0.006 and P = 0.688, respectively). Mueller manoeuvre led to a significant prolongation of QTc and TpTec intervals (+17.3 ms, P < 0.001 and +4.3 ms, P = 0.005). Inspiration through a threshold load significantly increased QTc (+9.6 ms, P < 0.001) but not TpTec. End-expiratory central apnoea did not alter QTc and TpTec intervals. According to the sleep study, 56% of patients had OSA (apnoea hypopnoea index ≥5).
CONCLUSION: Simulated OSA induces APBs which may be important in patients with PAF, because the majority of episodes of PAF has been shown to be triggered by APBs. Simulated OSA leads to a significant prolongation of ventricular repolarization.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Center for Integrative Human Physiology
04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Pneumology
04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Cardiology
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:2016
Deposited On:01 Feb 2016 11:13
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 19:40
Publisher:Oxford University Press
ISSN:1099-5129
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1093/europace/euv122
PubMed ID:25995393

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