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Patterns and development of floral asymmetry in Senna (Leguminosae, Cassiinae)


Marazzi, Brigitte; Endress, Peter K (2008). Patterns and development of floral asymmetry in Senna (Leguminosae, Cassiinae). American Journal of Botany, 95(1):22-40.

Abstract

The buzz-pollinated genus Senna (Leguminosae) is outstanding for including species with monosymmetric flowers and species with diverse asymmetric, enantiomorphic (enantiostylous) flowers. To recognize patterns of homology, we dissected the floral symmetry character complex and explored corolla morphology in 60 Senna species and studied floral development of four enantiomorphic species. The asymmetry morph of a flower is correlated with the direction of spiral calyx aestivation. We recognized five patterns of floral asymmetry, resulting from different combinations of six structural elements: deflection of the carpel, deflection of the median abaxial stamen, deflection or modification in size of one lateral abaxial stamen, and modification in shape and size of one or both lower petals. Prominent corolla asymmetry begins in the earl-stage bud (unequal development of lower petals). Androecium asymmetry begins either in the midstage bud (unequal development of thecae in median abaxial stamen; twisting of androecium) or at anthesis (stamen deflection). Gynoecium asymmetry begins in early bud (primordium off the median plane, ventral slit laterally oriented) or midstage to late bud (carpel deflection). In enantiostylous flowers, pronouncedly concave and robust petals of both monosymmetric and asymmetric corollas likely function to ricochet and direct pollen flow during buzz pollination. Occurrence of particular combinations of structural elements of floral symmetry in the subclades is shown.

Abstract

The buzz-pollinated genus Senna (Leguminosae) is outstanding for including species with monosymmetric flowers and species with diverse asymmetric, enantiomorphic (enantiostylous) flowers. To recognize patterns of homology, we dissected the floral symmetry character complex and explored corolla morphology in 60 Senna species and studied floral development of four enantiomorphic species. The asymmetry morph of a flower is correlated with the direction of spiral calyx aestivation. We recognized five patterns of floral asymmetry, resulting from different combinations of six structural elements: deflection of the carpel, deflection of the median abaxial stamen, deflection or modification in size of one lateral abaxial stamen, and modification in shape and size of one or both lower petals. Prominent corolla asymmetry begins in the earl-stage bud (unequal development of lower petals). Androecium asymmetry begins either in the midstage bud (unequal development of thecae in median abaxial stamen; twisting of androecium) or at anthesis (stamen deflection). Gynoecium asymmetry begins in early bud (primordium off the median plane, ventral slit laterally oriented) or midstage to late bud (carpel deflection). In enantiostylous flowers, pronouncedly concave and robust petals of both monosymmetric and asymmetric corollas likely function to ricochet and direct pollen flow during buzz pollination. Occurrence of particular combinations of structural elements of floral symmetry in the subclades is shown.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:07 Faculty of Science > Department of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany
Dewey Decimal Classification:580 Plants (Botany)
Language:English
Date:January 2008
Deposited On:26 Jan 2009 21:10
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 12:54
Publisher:Botanical Society of America
ISSN:0002-9122
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.3732/ajb.95.1.22
Official URL:http://www.amjbot.org/cgi/content/abstract/95/1/22
Related URLs:http://www.amjbot.org

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