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Environmental marine pathogen isolation using mesocosm culture of sharpsnout seabream: striking genomic and morphological features of novel Endozoicomonas sp


Katharios, Pantelis; Seth-Smith, Helena MB; Fehr, Alexander; Mateos, José María; Qi, Weihong; Richter, Denis; Nufer, Lisbeth; Ruetten, Maja; Guevara Soto, Maricruz; Ziegler, Urs; Thomson, Nicholas R; Schlapbach, Ralph; Vaughan, Lloyd (2015). Environmental marine pathogen isolation using mesocosm culture of sharpsnout seabream: striking genomic and morphological features of novel Endozoicomonas sp. Scientific Reports, 5:onlie.

Abstract

Aquaculture is a burgeoning industry, requiring diversification into new farmed species, which are often at risk from infectious disease. We used a mesocosm technique to investigate the susceptibility of sharpsnout seabream (Diplodus puntazzo) larvae to potential environmental pathogens in seawater compared to control borehole water. Fish exposed to seawater succumbed to epitheliocystis from 21 days post hatching, causing mortality in a quarter of the hosts. The pathogen responsible was not chlamydial, as is often found in epitheliocystis, but a novel species of the γ-proteobacterial genus Endozoicomonas. Detailed characterisation of this pathogen within the infectious lesions using high resolution fluorescent and electron microscopy showed densely packed rod shaped bacteria. A draft genome sequence of this uncultured bacterium was obtained from preserved material. Comparison with the genome of the Endozoicomonas elysicola type strain shows that the genome of Ca. Endozoicomonas cretensis is undergoing decay through loss of functional genes and insertion sequence expansion, often indicative of adaptation to a new niche or restriction to an alternative lifestyle. These results demonstrate the advantage of mesocosm studies for investigating the effect of environmental bacteria on susceptible hosts and provide an important insight into the genome dynamics of a novel fish pathogen.

Abstract

Aquaculture is a burgeoning industry, requiring diversification into new farmed species, which are often at risk from infectious disease. We used a mesocosm technique to investigate the susceptibility of sharpsnout seabream (Diplodus puntazzo) larvae to potential environmental pathogens in seawater compared to control borehole water. Fish exposed to seawater succumbed to epitheliocystis from 21 days post hatching, causing mortality in a quarter of the hosts. The pathogen responsible was not chlamydial, as is often found in epitheliocystis, but a novel species of the γ-proteobacterial genus Endozoicomonas. Detailed characterisation of this pathogen within the infectious lesions using high resolution fluorescent and electron microscopy showed densely packed rod shaped bacteria. A draft genome sequence of this uncultured bacterium was obtained from preserved material. Comparison with the genome of the Endozoicomonas elysicola type strain shows that the genome of Ca. Endozoicomonas cretensis is undergoing decay through loss of functional genes and insertion sequence expansion, often indicative of adaptation to a new niche or restriction to an alternative lifestyle. These results demonstrate the advantage of mesocosm studies for investigating the effect of environmental bacteria on susceptible hosts and provide an important insight into the genome dynamics of a novel fish pathogen.

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Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Center for Microscopy and Image Analysis
05 Vetsuisse Faculty > Institute of Veterinary Pathology
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
Language:English
Date:7 December 2015
Deposited On:18 Dec 2015 16:19
Last Modified:08 Dec 2017 15:56
Publisher:Nature Publishing Group
ISSN:2045-2322
Funders:SNF project 310030_138533 to LV, EU FP7 Aquaexcel-TNA project 01-05-15-0004-B to LV and PK, Marie Curie IEF grant number 332058 to HSS
Free access at:PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1038/srep17609
Related URLs:http://www.nature.com/articles/srep17609 (Publisher)
PubMed ID:26639610

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