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The dog: nonconformist, not only in maternal recognition signaling


Kowalewski, Mariusz Pawel; Gram, Aykut; Kautz, Ewa; Graubner, Felix (2015). The dog: nonconformist, not only in maternal recognition signaling. In: Geisert, Rodney D; Bazer, Fuller W. Regulation of Implantation and Establishment of Pregnancy in Mammals. New York: Springer New York LLC, 215-237.

Abstract

Although similar at the molecular and cellular levels, endocrine mechanisms governing reproductive function in the domestic dog (Canis familiaris) differ markedly at the regulatory level from those known in other domestic animal species. Some of the events, e.g., the lack of luteolysis in the absence of pregnancy, resulting in similar luteal function and, therefore, hormonal profiles in early pregnant and nonpregnant animals, are species-specific. Consequently, no early gestation marker has so far been identified for the dog. Following implantation, relaxin of fetal placental origin can be detected and used for pregnancy diagnosis. Characterized by the lack of an active luteolytic principle from intra- or extra-luteal sources, the canine reproductive cycle appears to represent a “basic” form of mammalian reproductive function with apparently reduced opportunities for facilitating fecundity and hastening reproduction. Nevertheless, in the dog some kind of mechanism for synchronization between blastocyst development and uterine preparation for pregnancy must have evolved in order to support gestation. Driven by this assumption, studies including our recent investigations have been initiated aimed at characterizing some of the embryo-mediated effects of the preimplantation embryo on the canine uterus. Moreover, the lack of a uterine luteolysin and consequently the absence of a need to develop an antiluteolytic strategy make the dog an interesting model for investigating early evolutionary mechanisms involved in the preparation for implantation and ensuring embryo survival. These mechanisms result in an inverse relationship between the duration of pregnancy and of the nonpregnant cycle in the dog, compared with all other domestic animal species.

Abstract

Although similar at the molecular and cellular levels, endocrine mechanisms governing reproductive function in the domestic dog (Canis familiaris) differ markedly at the regulatory level from those known in other domestic animal species. Some of the events, e.g., the lack of luteolysis in the absence of pregnancy, resulting in similar luteal function and, therefore, hormonal profiles in early pregnant and nonpregnant animals, are species-specific. Consequently, no early gestation marker has so far been identified for the dog. Following implantation, relaxin of fetal placental origin can be detected and used for pregnancy diagnosis. Characterized by the lack of an active luteolytic principle from intra- or extra-luteal sources, the canine reproductive cycle appears to represent a “basic” form of mammalian reproductive function with apparently reduced opportunities for facilitating fecundity and hastening reproduction. Nevertheless, in the dog some kind of mechanism for synchronization between blastocyst development and uterine preparation for pregnancy must have evolved in order to support gestation. Driven by this assumption, studies including our recent investigations have been initiated aimed at characterizing some of the embryo-mediated effects of the preimplantation embryo on the canine uterus. Moreover, the lack of a uterine luteolysin and consequently the absence of a need to develop an antiluteolytic strategy make the dog an interesting model for investigating early evolutionary mechanisms involved in the preparation for implantation and ensuring embryo survival. These mechanisms result in an inverse relationship between the duration of pregnancy and of the nonpregnant cycle in the dog, compared with all other domestic animal species.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Book Section, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:05 Vetsuisse Faculty > Institute of Veterinary Anatomy
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
Language:English
Date:2015
Deposited On:23 Dec 2015 10:00
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 19:45
Publisher:Springer New York LLC
Series Name:Advances in Anatomy, Embryology and Cell Biology
Number:216
ISSN:0301-5556
ISBN:978-3-319-15856-3
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-15856-3_11
PubMed ID:26450501

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