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Molecular diversity and associated phenotypic spectrum of germline CBL mutations


Abstract

Noonan syndrome (NS) is a relatively common developmental disorder with a pleomorphic phenotype. Mutations causing NS alter genes encoding proteins involved in the RAS-MAPK pathway. We and others identified Casitas B-lineage lymphoma proto-oncogene (CBL), which encodes an E3-ubiquitin ligase acting as a tumor suppressor in myeloid malignancies, as a disease gene underlying a condition clinically related to NS. Here, we further explored the spectrum of germline CBL mutations and their associated phenotype. CBL mutation scanning performed on 349 affected subjects with features overlapping NS and no mutation in NS genes allowed the identification of five different variants with pathological significance. Among them, two splice-site changes, one in-frame deletion, and one missense mutation affected the RING domain and/or the adjacent linker region, overlapping cancer-associated defects. A novel nonsense mutation generating a v-Cbl-like protein able to enhance signal flow through RAS was also identified. Genotype-phenotype correlation analysis performed on available records indicated that germline CBL mutations cause a variable phenotype characterized by a relatively high frequency of neurological features, predisposition to juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia, and low prevalence of cardiac defects, reduced growth, and cryptorchidism. Finally, we excluded a major contribution of two additional members of the CBL family, CBLB and CBLC, to NS and related disorders.

Abstract

Noonan syndrome (NS) is a relatively common developmental disorder with a pleomorphic phenotype. Mutations causing NS alter genes encoding proteins involved in the RAS-MAPK pathway. We and others identified Casitas B-lineage lymphoma proto-oncogene (CBL), which encodes an E3-ubiquitin ligase acting as a tumor suppressor in myeloid malignancies, as a disease gene underlying a condition clinically related to NS. Here, we further explored the spectrum of germline CBL mutations and their associated phenotype. CBL mutation scanning performed on 349 affected subjects with features overlapping NS and no mutation in NS genes allowed the identification of five different variants with pathological significance. Among them, two splice-site changes, one in-frame deletion, and one missense mutation affected the RING domain and/or the adjacent linker region, overlapping cancer-associated defects. A novel nonsense mutation generating a v-Cbl-like protein able to enhance signal flow through RAS was also identified. Genotype-phenotype correlation analysis performed on available records indicated that germline CBL mutations cause a variable phenotype characterized by a relatively high frequency of neurological features, predisposition to juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia, and low prevalence of cardiac defects, reduced growth, and cryptorchidism. Finally, we excluded a major contribution of two additional members of the CBL family, CBLB and CBLC, to NS and related disorders.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Institute of Medical Genetics
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
610 Medicine & health
Date:August 2015
Deposited On:29 Dec 2015 16:58
Last Modified:28 Apr 2017 02:25
Publisher:Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Inc.
ISSN:1059-7794
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1002/humu.22809
PubMed ID:25952305

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