OBJECTIVES: To perform a bibliographic review on the topic of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) in children with myelomeningocele. METHODS: PubMed search using the terms: vesicoureteral reflux and myelomeningocele. RESULTS: Between 1981 and 2007 340 articles were found, 61 of which were considered adequate, and 48 were used as references for this monographic issue. We discuss the pathogenesis of VUR in neurogenic bladder, the efficacy of conservative treatment with clean intermittent catheterization and anticholinergic drugs, as well as the indications and efficacy of various surgical procedures including ureteral reimplantation, subureteral injection of various agents, bladder augmentation, cutaneous vesicostomy, urethral dilation, transureteral-ureterostomy and botulin toxin injection. CONCLUSIONS: Vesicoureteral reflux plays an important role in the development of renal damage in infants and children with congenital myelomeningocele. Nephropathy may be prevented with adequate evaluation and follow-up and timely therapeutic intervention. Renal failure in these patients always reflects the failure of medical care or social/socioeconomic conditions.