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CD40-TNF activation in mice induces extended sickness behavior syndrome co-incident with but not dependent on activation of the kynurenine pathway


Cathomas, Flurin; Fuertig, Rene; Sigrist, Hannes; Newman, Gregory N; Hoop, Vanessa; Bizzozzero, Manuela; Mueller, Andreas; Luippold, Andreas; Ceci, Angelo; Hengerer, Bastian; Seifritz, Erich; Fontana, Adriano; Pryce, Christopher R (2015). CD40-TNF activation in mice induces extended sickness behavior syndrome co-incident with but not dependent on activation of the kynurenine pathway. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 50:125-140.

Abstract

The similarity between sickness behavior syndrome (SBS) in infection and autoimmune disorders and certain symptoms in major depressive disorder (MDD), and the high co-morbidity of autoimmune disorders and MDD, constitutes some of the major evidence for the immune-inflammation hypothesis of MDD. CD40 ligand-CD40 immune-activation is important in host response to infection and in development of autoimmunity. Mice given a single intra-peritoneal injection of CD40 agonist antibody (CD40AB) develop SBS for 2-3days characterized by weight loss and increased sleep, effects that are dependent on the cytokine, tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Here we report that CD40AB also induces behavioral effects that extend beyond acute SBS and co-occur with but are not mediated by kynurenine pathway activation and recovery. CD40AB led to decreased saccharin drinking (days 1-7) and decreased Pavlovian fear conditioning (days 5-6), and was without effect on physical fatigue (day 5). These behavioral effects co-occurred with increased plasma and brain levels of kynurenine and its metabolites (days 1-7/8). Co-injection of TNF blocker etanercept with CD40AB prevented each of SBS, reduced saccharin drinking, and kynurenine pathway activation in plasma and brain. Repeated oral administration of a selective indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) inhibitor blocked activation of the kynurenine pathway but was without effect on SBS and saccharin drinking. This study provides novel evidence that CD40-TNF activation induces deficits in saccharin drinking and Pavlovian fear learning and activates the kynurenine pathway, and that CD40-TNF activation of the kynurenine pathway is not necessary for induction of the acute or extended SBS effects.

Abstract

The similarity between sickness behavior syndrome (SBS) in infection and autoimmune disorders and certain symptoms in major depressive disorder (MDD), and the high co-morbidity of autoimmune disorders and MDD, constitutes some of the major evidence for the immune-inflammation hypothesis of MDD. CD40 ligand-CD40 immune-activation is important in host response to infection and in development of autoimmunity. Mice given a single intra-peritoneal injection of CD40 agonist antibody (CD40AB) develop SBS for 2-3days characterized by weight loss and increased sleep, effects that are dependent on the cytokine, tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Here we report that CD40AB also induces behavioral effects that extend beyond acute SBS and co-occur with but are not mediated by kynurenine pathway activation and recovery. CD40AB led to decreased saccharin drinking (days 1-7) and decreased Pavlovian fear conditioning (days 5-6), and was without effect on physical fatigue (day 5). These behavioral effects co-occurred with increased plasma and brain levels of kynurenine and its metabolites (days 1-7/8). Co-injection of TNF blocker etanercept with CD40AB prevented each of SBS, reduced saccharin drinking, and kynurenine pathway activation in plasma and brain. Repeated oral administration of a selective indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) inhibitor blocked activation of the kynurenine pathway but was without effect on SBS and saccharin drinking. This study provides novel evidence that CD40-TNF activation induces deficits in saccharin drinking and Pavlovian fear learning and activates the kynurenine pathway, and that CD40-TNF activation of the kynurenine pathway is not necessary for induction of the acute or extended SBS effects.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Psychiatric University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Psychiatry, Psychotherapy, and Psychosomatics
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:November 2015
Deposited On:18 Jan 2016 15:43
Last Modified:08 Dec 2017 17:00
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:0889-1591
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2015.06.184
PubMed ID:26173174

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