UNLABELLED Infantile movement disorders are rare and genetically heterogeneous. We set out to identify the disease-causing mutation in siblings with a novel recessive neurodegenerative movement disorder. Genetic linkage analysis and whole-exome sequencing were performed in the original family. A cohort of six unrelated patients were sequenced for further mutations in the identified candidate gene. Pathogenicity of the mutation was evaluated by in silico analyses and by structural modeling. We identified the first and homozygous mutation (p.Gly114Ala) in the Mediator subunit 20 gene (MED20) in siblings presenting with infantile-onset spasticity and childhood-onset dystonia, progressive basal ganglia degeneration, and brain atrophy. Mediator refers to an evolutionarily conserved multi-subunit RNA polymerase II co-regulatory complex. Pathogenicity of the identified missense mutation is suggested by in silico analyses, by structural modeling, and by previous reporting of mutations in four distinct Mediator subunits causing neurodegenerative phenotypes. No further MED20 mutations were detected in this study. CONCLUSION We delineate a novel infantile-onset neurodegenerative movement disorder and emphasize the Mediator complex as critical for normal neuronal function. Definitive proof of pathogenicity of the identified MED20 mutation will require confirmation in unrelated patients.