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The distinct gene regulatory network of myoglobin in prostate and breast cancer


Bicker, Anne; Brahmer, Alexandra M; Meller, Sebastian; Kristiansen, Glen; Gorr, Thomas A; Hankeln, Thomas (2015). The distinct gene regulatory network of myoglobin in prostate and breast cancer. PLoS ONE, 10(11):e0142662.

Abstract

Myoglobin (MB) is not only strongly expressed in myocytes, but also at much lower levels in different cancer entities. 40% of breast tumors are MB-positive, with the globin being co-expressed with markers of tumor hypoxia in a proportion of cases. In breast cancer, MB expression is associated with a positive hormone receptor status and patient prognosis. In prostate cancer, another hormone-dependent cancer type, 53% of tumors were recently shown to express MB. Especially in more aggressive prostate cancer specimen MB expression also correlates with increased patient survival rates. Both findings might be due to tumor-suppressing properties of MB in cancer cells. In contrast to muscle, MB transcription in breast and prostate cancer mainly depends on a novel, alternative promoter site. We show here that its associated transcripts can be upregulated by hypoxia and downregulated by estrogens and androgens in MCF7 breast and LNCaP prostate cancer cells, respectively. Bioinformatic data mining of epigenetic histone marks and experimental verification reveal a hitherto uncharacterized transcriptional network that drives the regulation of the MB gene in cancer cells. We identified candidate hormone-receptor binding elements that may interact with the cancer-associated MB promoter to decrease its activity in breast and prostate cancer cells. Additionally, a regulatory element, 250 kb downstream of the promoter, acts as a hypoxia-inducible site within the transcriptional machinery. Understanding the distinct regulation of MB in tumors will improve unraveling the respiratory protein's function in the cancer context and may provide new starting points for developing therapeutic strategies.

Abstract

Myoglobin (MB) is not only strongly expressed in myocytes, but also at much lower levels in different cancer entities. 40% of breast tumors are MB-positive, with the globin being co-expressed with markers of tumor hypoxia in a proportion of cases. In breast cancer, MB expression is associated with a positive hormone receptor status and patient prognosis. In prostate cancer, another hormone-dependent cancer type, 53% of tumors were recently shown to express MB. Especially in more aggressive prostate cancer specimen MB expression also correlates with increased patient survival rates. Both findings might be due to tumor-suppressing properties of MB in cancer cells. In contrast to muscle, MB transcription in breast and prostate cancer mainly depends on a novel, alternative promoter site. We show here that its associated transcripts can be upregulated by hypoxia and downregulated by estrogens and androgens in MCF7 breast and LNCaP prostate cancer cells, respectively. Bioinformatic data mining of epigenetic histone marks and experimental verification reveal a hitherto uncharacterized transcriptional network that drives the regulation of the MB gene in cancer cells. We identified candidate hormone-receptor binding elements that may interact with the cancer-associated MB promoter to decrease its activity in breast and prostate cancer cells. Additionally, a regulatory element, 250 kb downstream of the promoter, acts as a hypoxia-inducible site within the transcriptional machinery. Understanding the distinct regulation of MB in tumors will improve unraveling the respiratory protein's function in the cancer context and may provide new starting points for developing therapeutic strategies.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:05 Vetsuisse Faculty > Institute of Veterinary Physiology
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
Language:English
Date:2015
Deposited On:21 Jan 2016 11:47
Last Modified:08 Dec 2017 17:17
Publisher:Public Library of Science (PLoS)
ISSN:1932-6203
Free access at:PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0142662
PubMed ID:26559958

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