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Diagnostic approach in lymphoplasmacytic plaque


Mitteldorf, C; Palmedo, G; Kutzner, H; Kauer, F; Prestin, M; Schuster, C; Hübscher, E; Kirsch, A; Tronnier, M; Kempf, W (2015). Diagnostic approach in lymphoplasmacytic plaque. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venerology, 29(11):2206-2215.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Lymphoplasmacytic plaque (LPP) is a recently described rare skin disease characterized by a dense dermal lymphohistiocytic infiltrate with polyclonal plasma cells. The clinical picture is distinct with reddish to brownish plaque with a predilection for the lower leg. LPP typically affects children.
OBJECTIVE: To define clinical and histologic criteria of LPP and to develop a diagnostic flow chart.
METHODS: We investigated six of our own LPP cases. Immunoglobulin light chains, IgG, IgG4, CD31, CD163 as a histiocytic marker were examined by immunohistochemistry. PCR-based molecular studies were conducted for borrelia sp., mycobacterial and leishmania sp. Moreover, 10 cases, which have been reported in the literature, were checked for the same features.
RESULTS: We could differentiate three main histological patterns (superficial band-like only, [deep] dermal only and mixed). Acanthosis and interface dermatitis are key features in cases with a superficial band-like or mixed infiltrate. Granulomas and giant cells could be only found in about 30% of the cases. The number of plasma cells was variable accounting for 5-40% of the infiltrate. The number of blood vessels was increased in the majority of the cases. 'Free-floating' collagen bundles surrounded by histiocytes (pseudorosettes) were identified as a new histological feature. An infectious agent could be excluded in all cases.
CONCLUSIONS: LPP is a long-standing skin disease, which may also occur in adults and in other body regions than the lower leg. Reproducible clinical and histological criteria allow delineating a diagnostic work-up for LPP.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Lymphoplasmacytic plaque (LPP) is a recently described rare skin disease characterized by a dense dermal lymphohistiocytic infiltrate with polyclonal plasma cells. The clinical picture is distinct with reddish to brownish plaque with a predilection for the lower leg. LPP typically affects children.
OBJECTIVE: To define clinical and histologic criteria of LPP and to develop a diagnostic flow chart.
METHODS: We investigated six of our own LPP cases. Immunoglobulin light chains, IgG, IgG4, CD31, CD163 as a histiocytic marker were examined by immunohistochemistry. PCR-based molecular studies were conducted for borrelia sp., mycobacterial and leishmania sp. Moreover, 10 cases, which have been reported in the literature, were checked for the same features.
RESULTS: We could differentiate three main histological patterns (superficial band-like only, [deep] dermal only and mixed). Acanthosis and interface dermatitis are key features in cases with a superficial band-like or mixed infiltrate. Granulomas and giant cells could be only found in about 30% of the cases. The number of plasma cells was variable accounting for 5-40% of the infiltrate. The number of blood vessels was increased in the majority of the cases. 'Free-floating' collagen bundles surrounded by histiocytes (pseudorosettes) were identified as a new histological feature. An infectious agent could be excluded in all cases.
CONCLUSIONS: LPP is a long-standing skin disease, which may also occur in adults and in other body regions than the lower leg. Reproducible clinical and histological criteria allow delineating a diagnostic work-up for LPP.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Dermatology Clinic
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:November 2015
Deposited On:04 Feb 2016 13:59
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 19:58
Publisher:Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Inc.
ISSN:0926-9959
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1111/jdv.13213
PubMed ID:26370335

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