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Lyotropic cubic phases for drug delivery: diffusion and sustained release from the mesophase evaluated by electrochemical methods


Nazaruk, Ewa; Miszta, Przemysław; Filipek, Sławomir; Górecka, Ewa; Landau, Ehud; Bilewicz, Renata (2015). Lyotropic cubic phases for drug delivery: diffusion and sustained release from the mesophase evaluated by electrochemical methods. Langmuir, 31(46):12753-12761.

Abstract

Lyotropic liquid crystalline systems are excellent carriers for drugs due to their biocompatibility, stability in aqueous environment, and well-defined structure that allow them to host significantly larger amounts of drugs than carriers such as liposomes or gold nanoparticles. Incorporating the drug within the mesophase gel, or the cubosome/hexosome nanoparticles, decreased its toxic effects toward healthy cells, while appropriate mechanisms can stimulate the release of the drug from the carrier when it approaches the cancerous cell environment. Electrochemical methods-chronocoulometry and voltammetry at micro and normal size electrodes-are used for the first time to simultaneously determine the diffusion coefficients and effective concentrations of a toxic anticancer drug, doxorubicin, in the channels of three liquid-crystalline lipidic cubic phases. This approach was instrumental in demonstrating that the drug diffusion and kinetics of release from the mesophases depend on the aqueous channel size, which in turn is related to the identity and structure of the amphiphilic molecules used for the formation of the mesophase. Structural parameters of the cubic phases with the incorporated drug were characterized by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and molecular dynamics simulations were applied in order to describe the differences in the distribution of doxorubicin in the cubic phase matrix at acidic and neutral pH. The release of the drug from the phase was retarded at physiological pH, while at lower pH, corresponding to the cancer environment, it was accelerated, provided that suitable amphiphilic molecules were employed for the construction of the liquid crystal drug delivery system.

Abstract

Lyotropic liquid crystalline systems are excellent carriers for drugs due to their biocompatibility, stability in aqueous environment, and well-defined structure that allow them to host significantly larger amounts of drugs than carriers such as liposomes or gold nanoparticles. Incorporating the drug within the mesophase gel, or the cubosome/hexosome nanoparticles, decreased its toxic effects toward healthy cells, while appropriate mechanisms can stimulate the release of the drug from the carrier when it approaches the cancerous cell environment. Electrochemical methods-chronocoulometry and voltammetry at micro and normal size electrodes-are used for the first time to simultaneously determine the diffusion coefficients and effective concentrations of a toxic anticancer drug, doxorubicin, in the channels of three liquid-crystalline lipidic cubic phases. This approach was instrumental in demonstrating that the drug diffusion and kinetics of release from the mesophases depend on the aqueous channel size, which in turn is related to the identity and structure of the amphiphilic molecules used for the formation of the mesophase. Structural parameters of the cubic phases with the incorporated drug were characterized by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and molecular dynamics simulations were applied in order to describe the differences in the distribution of doxorubicin in the cubic phase matrix at acidic and neutral pH. The release of the drug from the phase was retarded at physiological pH, while at lower pH, corresponding to the cancer environment, it was accelerated, provided that suitable amphiphilic molecules were employed for the construction of the liquid crystal drug delivery system.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:07 Faculty of Science > Department of Chemistry
Dewey Decimal Classification:540 Chemistry
Language:English
Date:2015
Deposited On:26 Jan 2016 11:39
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 19:59
Publisher:American Chemical Society (ACS)
ISSN:0743-7463
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.langmuir.5b03247

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