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HSAN1 mutations in serine palmitoyltransferase reveal a close structure-function-phenotype relationship


Bode, Heiko; Bourquin, Florence; Suriyanarayanan, Saranya; Wei, Yu; Alecu, Irina; Othman, Alaa; von Eckardstein, Arnold; Hornemann, Thorsten (2016). HSAN1 mutations in serine palmitoyltransferase reveal a close structure-function-phenotype relationship. Human Molecular Genetics, 25(5):853-865.

Abstract

Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type 1 (HSAN1) is a rare autosomal dominant inherited peripheral neuropathy caused by mutations in the SPTLC1 and SPTLC2 subunits of serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT). The mutations induce a permanent shift in the substrate preference from l-serine to l-alanine, which results in the pathological formation of atypical and neurotoxic 1-deoxy-sphingolipids (1-deoxySL). Here we compared the enzymatic properties of 11 SPTLC1 and six SPTLC2 mutants using a uniform isotope labelling approach. In total, eight SPT mutants (STPLC1p.C133W, p.C133Y, p.S331F, p.S331Y and SPTLC2p.A182P, p.G382V, p.S384F, p.I504F) were associated with increased 1-deoxySL synthesis. Despite earlier reports, canonical activity with l-serine was not reduced in any of the investigated SPT mutants. Three variants (SPTLC1p.S331F/Y and SPTLC2p.I505Y) showed an increased canonical activity and increased formation of C20 sphingoid bases. These three mutations are associated with an exceptionally severe HSAN1 phenotype, and increased C20 sphingosine levels were also confirmed in plasma of patients. A principal component analysis of the analysed sphingoid bases clustered the mutations into three separate entities. Each cluster was related to a distinct clinical outcome (no, mild and severe HSAN1 phenotype). A homology model based on the protein structure of the prokaryotic SPT recapitulated the same grouping on a structural level. Mutations associated with the mild form clustered around the active site, whereas mutations associated with the severe form were located on the surface of the protein. In conclusion, we showed that HSAN1 mutations in SPT have distinct biochemical properties, which allowed for the prediction of the clinical symptoms on the basis of the plasma sphingoid base profile.

Abstract

Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type 1 (HSAN1) is a rare autosomal dominant inherited peripheral neuropathy caused by mutations in the SPTLC1 and SPTLC2 subunits of serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT). The mutations induce a permanent shift in the substrate preference from l-serine to l-alanine, which results in the pathological formation of atypical and neurotoxic 1-deoxy-sphingolipids (1-deoxySL). Here we compared the enzymatic properties of 11 SPTLC1 and six SPTLC2 mutants using a uniform isotope labelling approach. In total, eight SPT mutants (STPLC1p.C133W, p.C133Y, p.S331F, p.S331Y and SPTLC2p.A182P, p.G382V, p.S384F, p.I504F) were associated with increased 1-deoxySL synthesis. Despite earlier reports, canonical activity with l-serine was not reduced in any of the investigated SPT mutants. Three variants (SPTLC1p.S331F/Y and SPTLC2p.I505Y) showed an increased canonical activity and increased formation of C20 sphingoid bases. These three mutations are associated with an exceptionally severe HSAN1 phenotype, and increased C20 sphingosine levels were also confirmed in plasma of patients. A principal component analysis of the analysed sphingoid bases clustered the mutations into three separate entities. Each cluster was related to a distinct clinical outcome (no, mild and severe HSAN1 phenotype). A homology model based on the protein structure of the prokaryotic SPT recapitulated the same grouping on a structural level. Mutations associated with the mild form clustered around the active site, whereas mutations associated with the severe form were located on the surface of the protein. In conclusion, we showed that HSAN1 mutations in SPT have distinct biochemical properties, which allowed for the prediction of the clinical symptoms on the basis of the plasma sphingoid base profile.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of Biochemistry
07 Faculty of Science > Department of Biochemistry

04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Institute of Clinical Chemistry
04 Faculty of Medicine > Center for Integrative Human Physiology
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
540 Chemistry
Language:English
Date:2016
Deposited On:08 Feb 2016 14:04
Last Modified:02 Feb 2018 09:48
Publisher:Oxford University Press
ISSN:0964-6906
Additional Information:This is a pre-copy-editing, author-produced PDF of an article accepted for publication in Human Molecular Genetics following peer review. The definitive publisher-authenticated version Hum. Mol. Genet. (2015) doi: 10.1093/hmg/ddv611 is available online at: http://doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddv611
OA Status:Hybrid
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddv611
PubMed ID:26681808

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