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Association of norepinephrine transporter (NET, SLC6A2) genotype with ADHD-related phenotypes: findings of a longitudinal study from birth to adolescence


Hohmann, Sarah; Hohm, Erika; Treutlein, Jens; Blomeyer, Dorothea; Jennen-Steinmetz, Christine; Schmidt, Martin H; Esser, Günter; Banaschewski, Tobias; Brandeis, Daniel; Laucht, Manfred (2015). Association of norepinephrine transporter (NET, SLC6A2) genotype with ADHD-related phenotypes: findings of a longitudinal study from birth to adolescence. Psychiatry Research, 226(2-3):425-433.

Abstract

Variation in the gene encoding for the norepinephrine transporter (NET, SLC6A2) has repeatedly been linked with ADHD, although there is some inconsistency regarding the association with specific genes. The variants for which most consistent association has been found are the NET variants rs3785157 and rs28386840. Here, we tested for their association with ADHD diagnosis and ADHD-related phenotypes during development in a longitudinal German community sample. Children were followed from age 4 to age 15, using diagnostic interviews to assess ADHD. Between the ages of 8 and 15 years, the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) was administered to the primary caregivers. The continuous performance task (CPT) was performed at age 15. Controlling for possible confounders, we found that homozygous carriers of the major A allele of the functional promoter variant rs28386840 displayed a higher rate of ADHD lifetime diagnosis. Moreover, homozygous carriers of the minor T allele of rs3785157 were more likely to develop ADHD and showed higher scores on the CBCL externalizing behavior scales. Additionally, we found that individuals heterozygous for rs3785157 made fewer omission errors in the CPT than homozygotes. This is the first longitudinal study to report associations between specific NET variants and ADHD-related phenotypes during the course of development.

Abstract

Variation in the gene encoding for the norepinephrine transporter (NET, SLC6A2) has repeatedly been linked with ADHD, although there is some inconsistency regarding the association with specific genes. The variants for which most consistent association has been found are the NET variants rs3785157 and rs28386840. Here, we tested for their association with ADHD diagnosis and ADHD-related phenotypes during development in a longitudinal German community sample. Children were followed from age 4 to age 15, using diagnostic interviews to assess ADHD. Between the ages of 8 and 15 years, the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) was administered to the primary caregivers. The continuous performance task (CPT) was performed at age 15. Controlling for possible confounders, we found that homozygous carriers of the major A allele of the functional promoter variant rs28386840 displayed a higher rate of ADHD lifetime diagnosis. Moreover, homozygous carriers of the minor T allele of rs3785157 were more likely to develop ADHD and showed higher scores on the CBCL externalizing behavior scales. Additionally, we found that individuals heterozygous for rs3785157 made fewer omission errors in the CPT than homozygotes. This is the first longitudinal study to report associations between specific NET variants and ADHD-related phenotypes during the course of development.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Psychiatric University Hospital Zurich > Center for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:30 April 2015
Deposited On:05 Feb 2016 11:10
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 20:01
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:0165-1781
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2014.12.029
PubMed ID:25724484

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