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Lowering the radioactivity of the photomultiplier tubes for the XENON1T dark matter experiment


XENON Collaboration; Aprile, E; Agostini, F; Alfonsi, M; Auger, M; Barrow, P; Baudis, L; Galloway, M; Kish, A; Mayani, D; Miguez, B; Molinario, A; Pakarha, P; Piastra, F; Trinchero, G; Laubenstein, M; et al (2015). Lowering the radioactivity of the photomultiplier tubes for the XENON1T dark matter experiment. European Physical Journal C - Particles and Fields, 75(11):546.

Abstract

The low-background, VUV-sensitive 3-inch diameter photomultiplier tube R11410 has been developed by Hamamatsu for dark matter direct detection experiments using liquid xenon as the target material. We present the results from the joint effort between the XENON collaboration and the Hamamatsu company to produce a highly radio-pure photosensor (version R11410-21) for the XENON1T dark matter experiment. After introducing the photosensor and its components, we show the methods and results of the radioactive contamination measurements of the individual materials employed in the photomultiplier production. We then discuss the adopted strategies to reduce the radioactivity of the various PMT versions. Finally, we detail the results from screening 286 tubes with ultra-low background germanium detectors, as well as their implications for the expected electronic and nuclear recoil background of the XENON1T experiment.

Abstract

The low-background, VUV-sensitive 3-inch diameter photomultiplier tube R11410 has been developed by Hamamatsu for dark matter direct detection experiments using liquid xenon as the target material. We present the results from the joint effort between the XENON collaboration and the Hamamatsu company to produce a highly radio-pure photosensor (version R11410-21) for the XENON1T dark matter experiment. After introducing the photosensor and its components, we show the methods and results of the radioactive contamination measurements of the individual materials employed in the photomultiplier production. We then discuss the adopted strategies to reduce the radioactivity of the various PMT versions. Finally, we detail the results from screening 286 tubes with ultra-low background germanium detectors, as well as their implications for the expected electronic and nuclear recoil background of the XENON1T experiment.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:07 Faculty of Science > Physics Institute
Dewey Decimal Classification:530 Physics
Language:English
Date:2015
Deposited On:18 Feb 2016 11:35
Last Modified:08 Dec 2017 18:38
Publisher:Springer
ISSN:1434-6044
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1140/epjc/s10052-015-3657-5
Other Identification Number:arXiv:1503.07698v1

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