Header

UZH-Logo

Maintenance Infos

Identification of polymorphism in ethylone hydrochloride: synthesis and characterization


Maheux, Chad R; Alarcon, Idralyn Q; Copeland, Catherine R; Cameron, T Stanley; Linden, Anthony; Grossert, J Stuart (2016). Identification of polymorphism in ethylone hydrochloride: synthesis and characterization. Drug Testing and Analysis, 8(8):847-857.

Abstract

Ethylone, a synthetic cathinonewith psychoactive properties, is a designer drugwhich has appeared on the recreational drugmarket in recent years. Since 2012, illicit shipments of ethylone hydrochloride have been intercepted with increasing frequency at the Canadian border. Analysis has revealed that ethylone hydrochloride exists as two istinct polymorphs. In addition, severalminor impurities were detected in some seized exhibits. In this study, the two conformational polymorphs of ethylone hydrochloride have been synthesized and fully characterized by FTIR, FT-Raman, powder XRD, GC-MS, ESI-MS/MS and NMR (13C CPMAS, 1H, 13C). The two polymorphs can be distinguished by vibrational spectroscopy, solid-state nuclearmagnetic resonance spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The FTIR data are applied to the identification of both polymorphs of ethylone hydrochloride (mixed with methylone hydrochloride) in a laboratory submission labelled as ’Ocean Snow Ultra’. The data presented in this study will assist forensic scientists in the differentiation of the two ethylone hydrochloride polymorphs. This report, alongside our recent article on the single crystal X-ray structure of a second polymorph of this synthetic cathinone, is the first to confirm polymorphism in ethylone hydrochloride.

Abstract

Ethylone, a synthetic cathinonewith psychoactive properties, is a designer drugwhich has appeared on the recreational drugmarket in recent years. Since 2012, illicit shipments of ethylone hydrochloride have been intercepted with increasing frequency at the Canadian border. Analysis has revealed that ethylone hydrochloride exists as two istinct polymorphs. In addition, severalminor impurities were detected in some seized exhibits. In this study, the two conformational polymorphs of ethylone hydrochloride have been synthesized and fully characterized by FTIR, FT-Raman, powder XRD, GC-MS, ESI-MS/MS and NMR (13C CPMAS, 1H, 13C). The two polymorphs can be distinguished by vibrational spectroscopy, solid-state nuclearmagnetic resonance spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The FTIR data are applied to the identification of both polymorphs of ethylone hydrochloride (mixed with methylone hydrochloride) in a laboratory submission labelled as ’Ocean Snow Ultra’. The data presented in this study will assist forensic scientists in the differentiation of the two ethylone hydrochloride polymorphs. This report, alongside our recent article on the single crystal X-ray structure of a second polymorph of this synthetic cathinone, is the first to confirm polymorphism in ethylone hydrochloride.

Statistics

Citations

1 citation in Web of Science®
1 citation in Scopus®
Google Scholar™

Altmetrics

Downloads

73 downloads since deposited on 23 Feb 2016
36 downloads since 12 months
Detailed statistics

Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:07 Faculty of Science > Department of Chemistry
Dewey Decimal Classification:540 Chemistry
Language:English
Date:2016
Deposited On:23 Feb 2016 13:22
Last Modified:08 Dec 2017 18:43
Publisher:Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Inc.
ISSN:1942-7603
Free access at:PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1002/dta.1859
PubMed ID:26344849

Download

Download PDF  'Identification of polymorphism in ethylone hydrochloride: synthesis and characterization'.
Preview
Content: Published Version
Filetype: PDF
Size: 1MB
View at publisher
Download PDF  'Identification of polymorphism in ethylone hydrochloride: synthesis and characterization'.
Preview
Content: Accepted Version
Filetype: PDF
Size: 199kB