Header

UZH-Logo

Maintenance Infos

Enhancers, enhancers - from their discovery to today's universe of transcription enhancers


Schaffner, Walter (2015). Enhancers, enhancers - from their discovery to today's universe of transcription enhancers. Biological Chemistry, 396(4):311-327.

Abstract

Transcriptional enhancers are short (200-1500 base pairs) DNA segments that are able to dramatically boost transcription from the promoter of a target gene. Originally discovered in simian virus 40 (SV40), a small DNA virus, transcription enhancers were soon also found in immunoglobulin genes and other cellular genes as key determinants of cell-type-specific gene expression. Enhancers can exert their effect over long distances of thousands, even hundreds of thousands of base pairs, either from upstream, downstream, or from within a transcription unit. The number of enhancers in eukaryotic genomes correlates with the complexity of the organism; a typical mammalian gene is likely controlled by several enhancers to fine-tune its expression at different developmental stages, in different cell types and in response to different signaling cues. Here, I provide a personal account of how enhancers were discovered more than 30 years ago, and also address the amazing development of the field since then.

Abstract

Transcriptional enhancers are short (200-1500 base pairs) DNA segments that are able to dramatically boost transcription from the promoter of a target gene. Originally discovered in simian virus 40 (SV40), a small DNA virus, transcription enhancers were soon also found in immunoglobulin genes and other cellular genes as key determinants of cell-type-specific gene expression. Enhancers can exert their effect over long distances of thousands, even hundreds of thousands of base pairs, either from upstream, downstream, or from within a transcription unit. The number of enhancers in eukaryotic genomes correlates with the complexity of the organism; a typical mammalian gene is likely controlled by several enhancers to fine-tune its expression at different developmental stages, in different cell types and in response to different signaling cues. Here, I provide a personal account of how enhancers were discovered more than 30 years ago, and also address the amazing development of the field since then.

Statistics

Citations

Dimensions.ai Metrics
12 citations in Web of Science®
12 citations in Scopus®
9 citations in Microsoft Academic
Google Scholar™

Altmetrics

Downloads

19 downloads since deposited on 16 Feb 2016
6 downloads since 12 months
Detailed statistics

Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:07 Faculty of Science > Institute of Molecular Life Sciences
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
Language:English
Date:April 2015
Deposited On:16 Feb 2016 15:34
Last Modified:14 Feb 2018 11:18
Publisher:De Gruyter
ISSN:1431-6730
OA Status:Hybrid
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1515/hsz-2014-0303
PubMed ID:25719310

Download

Download PDF  'Enhancers, enhancers - from their discovery to today's universe of transcription enhancers'.
Preview
Content: Published Version
Language: English
Filetype: PDF
Size: 1MB
View at publisher