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Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of γ-hydroxybutyrate in healthy subjects


Liechti, Matthias E; Quednow, Boris B; Liakoni, Evangelia; Dornbierer, Dario; von Rotz, Robin; Salomé Gachet, M; Gertsch, Jürg; Seifritz, Erich; Bosch, Oliver G (2016). Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of γ-hydroxybutyrate in healthy subjects. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 81(5):980-988.

Abstract

AIMS: γ-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is used as a treatment for narcolepsy and alcohol withdrawal and as recreational substance. Nevertheless, there are limited data on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationship of GHB in humans. We characterized the pharmacokinetic profile and exposure-psychotropic effect relationship of GHB in humans.
METHODS: Two oral doses of GHB (25 and 35 mg/kg) were administered to 32 healthy male subjects (16 for each dose) using a randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over design.
RESULTS: Maximal concentrations of GHB were (geometric mean and 95%CI): 218 (176-270) nmol/ml and 453 (374-549) nmol/ml for the 25 and 35 mg/kg GHB doses, respectively. The elimination half-lives (mean ± SD) were 36 ± 9 and 39 ± 7 min and the AUC∞ values (geometric mean and 95%CI) were 15,747 (12,854-19,290) and 40,113 (33,093-48,622) nmol∙min/ml for the 20 and 35 mg/kg GHB doses, respectively. Thus, plasma GHB exposure (AUC0-∞ ) rose disproportionally (+40%) with the higher dose. γ-Hydroxybutyrate produced mixed stimulant-sedative effects, with a dose-dependent increase in sedation and dizziness. It did not alter heart rate or blood pressure. A close relationship between plasma GHB exposure and its psychotropic effects was found, with higher GHB concentrations associated with higher subjective stimulation, sedation, and dizziness. No clockwise hysteresis was observed in the GHB concentration effect plot over time (i.e., no acute pharmacological tolerance).
CONCLUSION: Evidence was found of a non-linear dose-exposure relationship (i.e., no dose proportionality) at moderate doses of GHB. The effects of GHB on consciousness were closely linked to its plasma exposure and exhibited no acute tolerance. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Abstract

AIMS: γ-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is used as a treatment for narcolepsy and alcohol withdrawal and as recreational substance. Nevertheless, there are limited data on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationship of GHB in humans. We characterized the pharmacokinetic profile and exposure-psychotropic effect relationship of GHB in humans.
METHODS: Two oral doses of GHB (25 and 35 mg/kg) were administered to 32 healthy male subjects (16 for each dose) using a randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over design.
RESULTS: Maximal concentrations of GHB were (geometric mean and 95%CI): 218 (176-270) nmol/ml and 453 (374-549) nmol/ml for the 25 and 35 mg/kg GHB doses, respectively. The elimination half-lives (mean ± SD) were 36 ± 9 and 39 ± 7 min and the AUC∞ values (geometric mean and 95%CI) were 15,747 (12,854-19,290) and 40,113 (33,093-48,622) nmol∙min/ml for the 20 and 35 mg/kg GHB doses, respectively. Thus, plasma GHB exposure (AUC0-∞ ) rose disproportionally (+40%) with the higher dose. γ-Hydroxybutyrate produced mixed stimulant-sedative effects, with a dose-dependent increase in sedation and dizziness. It did not alter heart rate or blood pressure. A close relationship between plasma GHB exposure and its psychotropic effects was found, with higher GHB concentrations associated with higher subjective stimulation, sedation, and dizziness. No clockwise hysteresis was observed in the GHB concentration effect plot over time (i.e., no acute pharmacological tolerance).
CONCLUSION: Evidence was found of a non-linear dose-exposure relationship (i.e., no dose proportionality) at moderate doses of GHB. The effects of GHB on consciousness were closely linked to its plasma exposure and exhibited no acute tolerance. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Psychiatric University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Psychiatry, Psychotherapy, and Psychosomatics
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:2016
Deposited On:23 Feb 2016 16:31
Last Modified:24 Sep 2017 05:40
Publisher:Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Inc.
ISSN:0306-5251
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1111/bcp.12863
PubMed ID:26659543

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