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Spectrophotometric and visual evaluation of peri-implant soft tissue color


Benic, Goran I; Scherrer, Daniela; Sancho-Puchades, Manuel; Thoma, Daniel S; Hämmerle, Christoph H F (2017). Spectrophotometric and visual evaluation of peri-implant soft tissue color. Clinical Oral Implants Research, 28(2):192-200.

Abstract

AIM: To spectrophotometrically and visually test whether the peri-implant mucosal color differs from the color of the natural gingiva.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty single implants in the incisor and premolar region of 40 patients were assessed 3-7 years after implant placement. The differences of the color components lightness, chroma along red-green axis, chroma along yellow-blue axis, and the total color difference ΔE between peri-implant mucosa and natural gingiva were measured with a spectrophotometer. The color difference between peri-implant mucosa and natural gingiva was visually evaluated by clinicians and rated as "clinically visible" or "clinically invisible" from speaking distance. The dimensions of peri-implant mucosa and gingiva at the mid-buccal aspect were evaluated by using cone-beam CT. Spearman analysis was performed to detect correlations between different variables. Two-sided t-test, ANOVA, Mann-Whitney, and Kruskal-Wallis tests were applied to detect differences between the groups.
RESULTS: The spectrophotometrically assessed color difference ΔE between peri-implant mucosa and natural gingiva amounted to 7.0 ± 3.9. The peri-implant mucosa presented a significant dark, greenish and bluish discoloration in comparison with gingiva at control teeth. Clinical investigation revealed that in 60% of sites the color difference between peri-implant mucosa and natural gingiva was clinically visible from speaking distance. The threshold value ΔE for the extraoral clinical distinction of mucosal color differences measured 7.5. When comparing the groups with visible and invisible color differences with respect to the three color components, a significant difference was found only for chroma along yellow-blue axis. In the group with visible color difference, mucosa presented a bluish discoloration. Correlation analysis indicated that with an increase in mucosal thickness, a trend for smaller ΔE was found.
CONCLUSION: The spectrophotometrically assessed color of the peri-implant mucosa revealed more dark, green and blue components compared to the natural gingiva. At 60% of the implants, peri-implant mucosal discoloration was visible from speaking distance. The sites with visible and those with invisible mucosal discolorations differed significantly only regarding the chroma along yellow-blue axis.

Abstract

AIM: To spectrophotometrically and visually test whether the peri-implant mucosal color differs from the color of the natural gingiva.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty single implants in the incisor and premolar region of 40 patients were assessed 3-7 years after implant placement. The differences of the color components lightness, chroma along red-green axis, chroma along yellow-blue axis, and the total color difference ΔE between peri-implant mucosa and natural gingiva were measured with a spectrophotometer. The color difference between peri-implant mucosa and natural gingiva was visually evaluated by clinicians and rated as "clinically visible" or "clinically invisible" from speaking distance. The dimensions of peri-implant mucosa and gingiva at the mid-buccal aspect were evaluated by using cone-beam CT. Spearman analysis was performed to detect correlations between different variables. Two-sided t-test, ANOVA, Mann-Whitney, and Kruskal-Wallis tests were applied to detect differences between the groups.
RESULTS: The spectrophotometrically assessed color difference ΔE between peri-implant mucosa and natural gingiva amounted to 7.0 ± 3.9. The peri-implant mucosa presented a significant dark, greenish and bluish discoloration in comparison with gingiva at control teeth. Clinical investigation revealed that in 60% of sites the color difference between peri-implant mucosa and natural gingiva was clinically visible from speaking distance. The threshold value ΔE for the extraoral clinical distinction of mucosal color differences measured 7.5. When comparing the groups with visible and invisible color differences with respect to the three color components, a significant difference was found only for chroma along yellow-blue axis. In the group with visible color difference, mucosa presented a bluish discoloration. Correlation analysis indicated that with an increase in mucosal thickness, a trend for smaller ΔE was found.
CONCLUSION: The spectrophotometrically assessed color of the peri-implant mucosa revealed more dark, green and blue components compared to the natural gingiva. At 60% of the implants, peri-implant mucosal discoloration was visible from speaking distance. The sites with visible and those with invisible mucosal discolorations differed significantly only regarding the chroma along yellow-blue axis.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Center for Dental Medicine > Clinic for Fixed and Removable Prosthodontics
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:2017
Deposited On:23 Mar 2016 16:31
Last Modified:08 Dec 2017 19:17
Publisher:Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Inc.
ISSN:0905-7161
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1111/clr.12781
PubMed ID:26849000

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