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Hair analysis for opiates: hydromorphone and hydrocodone as indicators of heroin use


Madry, Milena M; Bosshard, Mona M; Kraemer, Thomas; Baumgartner, Markus R (2016). Hair analysis for opiates: hydromorphone and hydrocodone as indicators of heroin use. Bioanalysis, 8(9):953-964.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Identification of external contamination is a challenge in hair analysis. This study investigates metabolite ratios of hydromorphone to morphine and hydrocodone to codeine as indicators to distinguish contamination from heroin use provided that hydromorphone/hydrocodone intake is excluded.
RESULTS: Hair samples after external contamination with street heroin proved to be negative for hydromorphone/hydrocodone. Hair samples from individuals with suspected street heroin use/contamination or opiate medication were analyzed for 6-monoacetylmorphine, morphine, acetylcodeine, codeine, hydromorphone and hydrocodone, and metabolite ratios of hydromorphone to morphine and hydrocodone to codeine were assessed. Hair samples from individuals with medicinal heroin/morphine/codeine use displayed significantly higher metabolite ratios than those with suspected street heroin use/contamination.
CONCLUSION: Hydromorphone/hydrocodone are solely formed during body passage. Thus, metabolite ratios can be used to distinguish morphine/heroin use from external contamination.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Identification of external contamination is a challenge in hair analysis. This study investigates metabolite ratios of hydromorphone to morphine and hydrocodone to codeine as indicators to distinguish contamination from heroin use provided that hydromorphone/hydrocodone intake is excluded.
RESULTS: Hair samples after external contamination with street heroin proved to be negative for hydromorphone/hydrocodone. Hair samples from individuals with suspected street heroin use/contamination or opiate medication were analyzed for 6-monoacetylmorphine, morphine, acetylcodeine, codeine, hydromorphone and hydrocodone, and metabolite ratios of hydromorphone to morphine and hydrocodone to codeine were assessed. Hair samples from individuals with medicinal heroin/morphine/codeine use displayed significantly higher metabolite ratios than those with suspected street heroin use/contamination.
CONCLUSION: Hydromorphone/hydrocodone are solely formed during body passage. Thus, metabolite ratios can be used to distinguish morphine/heroin use from external contamination.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Institute of Legal Medicine
Dewey Decimal Classification:340 Law
610 Medicine & health
Uncontrolled Keywords:LC–MS/MS; Society of Hair Testing; drug analysis; external contamination; hair testing; hydrocodone; hydromorphone; metabolite ratios; opiates; seized heroin
Language:English
Date:2016
Deposited On:06 May 2016 16:08
Last Modified:29 May 2016 10:55
Publisher:Future Science Ltd.
ISSN:1757-6180
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.4155/bio-2016-0019
PubMed ID:27067523

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