Gliomas are the most common primary tumors involving the central nervous system. They can manifest with diverse and non-specific general and neurological symptoms. The diagnostic gold standard is cerebral magnetic resonance imaging and subsequent histological confirmation of the diagnosis. Steroids, especially dexamethasone, are used in case of focal symptoms and of symptoms caused by increased intracranial pressure, and antiepileptic drugs are used to manage epileptic seizures. Non-enzyme-inducing antiepileptic drugs are preferable. Glioma patients have an inherently elevated thromboembolic risk, and therapeutic anticoagulation is indicated following a thromboembolic event. Surgery, radiotherapy and systemic therapy are used as tumor-specific therapy modalities in gliomas. Molecular markers play an increasing role in the prognosis and selection of therapy in daily oncological routine.