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Urethral sphincter mechanism incompetence in spayed bitches: new insights into the pathophysiology and options for treatment.


Reichler, I M; Hubler, M; Arnold, S (2008). Urethral sphincter mechanism incompetence in spayed bitches: new insights into the pathophysiology and options for treatment. European Journal of Companion Animal Practice, 18(2):187-191.

Abstract

Incidence of USMI after ovariectomy
Urinary incontinence is the involuntary loss of urine [1]. In intact bitches urinary incontinence is rare (0-1 %) [2],
whereas in spayed bitches the incidence is up to 20% [3].
The underlying pathophysiological mechanism is mainly an acquired insuffi cient closure of the urethra after spaying
[4]. Therefore urinary incontinence after spaying is called urethral sphincter mechanism incompetence (USMI).
Within one year after spaying the urethral closure pressure is signifi cantly reduced. Because many bitches may only
become incontinent years after surgery it took a long time until the causal relationship between ovariectomy and the
occurrence of incontinence was proven [5]. In one study, 83 of 412 (20%) bitches became incontinent 3 to 10 years after
surgery [3].
As long as 40 years ago urinary incontinence was described as a rare side effect of spaying [6]. However, it took 20
years to verify the causal relationship between the removal of the ovaries and urinary incontinence [5]. The triggering
mechanism is still unclear.
Neuronal damage can most likely be disregarded, as the risk of urinary incontinence is the same in ovariectomised
and ovariohysterectomised bitches [3].

Abstract

Incidence of USMI after ovariectomy
Urinary incontinence is the involuntary loss of urine [1]. In intact bitches urinary incontinence is rare (0-1 %) [2],
whereas in spayed bitches the incidence is up to 20% [3].
The underlying pathophysiological mechanism is mainly an acquired insuffi cient closure of the urethra after spaying
[4]. Therefore urinary incontinence after spaying is called urethral sphincter mechanism incompetence (USMI).
Within one year after spaying the urethral closure pressure is signifi cantly reduced. Because many bitches may only
become incontinent years after surgery it took a long time until the causal relationship between ovariectomy and the
occurrence of incontinence was proven [5]. In one study, 83 of 412 (20%) bitches became incontinent 3 to 10 years after
surgery [3].
As long as 40 years ago urinary incontinence was described as a rare side effect of spaying [6]. However, it took 20
years to verify the causal relationship between the removal of the ovaries and urinary incontinence [5]. The triggering
mechanism is still unclear.
Neuronal damage can most likely be disregarded, as the risk of urinary incontinence is the same in ovariectomised
and ovariohysterectomised bitches [3].

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:05 Vetsuisse Faculty > Veterinary Clinic > Department of Farm Animals
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
630 Agriculture
Language:English
Date:October 2008
Deposited On:11 Feb 2009 15:52
Last Modified:06 Dec 2017 17:42
Publisher:Federation of European Companion Animal Veterinary Association
ISSN:1018-2357
Related URLs:http://www.fecava.org/pub/index.php?&view=14 (Publisher)

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