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Regional distribution of ventilation in horses in dorsal recumbency during spontaneous and mechanical ventilation assessed by electrical impedance tomography: a case series


Mosing, Martina; Marly-Voquer, Charlotte; MacFarlane, Paul; Bardell, David; Böhm, Stephan H; Bettschart-Wolfensberger, Regula; Waldmann, Andreas D (2017). Regional distribution of ventilation in horses in dorsal recumbency during spontaneous and mechanical ventilation assessed by electrical impedance tomography: a case series. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia, 44(1):127-132.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the regional distribution of ventilation in horses during spontaneous breathing and controlled mechanical ventilation (CMV) using electrical impedance tomography (EIT). STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, experimental case series. ANIMALS: Four anaesthetized experimental horses. METHODS: Horses were anaesthetized with isoflurane in an oxygen-air mixture and medetomidine continuous rate infusion, placed in dorsal recumbency with an EIT belt around the thorax, and allowed to breathe spontaneously until PaCO2 reached 13.3 kPa (100 mmHg), when volume CMV was started. For each horse, the EIT signal was recorded for at least 2 minutes immediately before (T1), and at 30 (n = 3) or 60 (n = 1) minutes after the start of CMV (T2). The centre of ventilation (CoV), dependent silent spaces (DSS) (likely to represent atelectatic lung areas), non-dependent silent spaces (NSS) (likely to represent lung areas with low ventilation) and total ventilated area (TVA) were evaluated. Cardiac output (CO) was measured and venous admixture and oxygen delivery (DO2 ) were calculated at T1 and T2. Data are presented as median and range. RESULTS: After the initiation of CMV, the CoV moved ventrally towards the non-dependent lung by 10% [from 57.4% (49.6-60.2%) to 48.3% (41.9-54.4%)]. DSS increased [from 4.1% (0.2-13.9%) to 18.7% (7.5-27.5%)], while NSS [21.7% (9.4-29.2%) to 9.9% (1.0-20.7%)] and TVA [920 (699-1051) to 837 (662-961) pixels] decreased. CO, venous admixture and DO2 also decreased. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: In spontaneously breathing anaesthetized horses in dorsal recumbency, ventilation was essentially centred within the dependent dorsal lung regions and moved towards non-dependent ventral regions as soon as CMV was started. This shows a major lack of ventilation in the dependent lung, which may be indicative of atelectasis.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the regional distribution of ventilation in horses during spontaneous breathing and controlled mechanical ventilation (CMV) using electrical impedance tomography (EIT). STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, experimental case series. ANIMALS: Four anaesthetized experimental horses. METHODS: Horses were anaesthetized with isoflurane in an oxygen-air mixture and medetomidine continuous rate infusion, placed in dorsal recumbency with an EIT belt around the thorax, and allowed to breathe spontaneously until PaCO2 reached 13.3 kPa (100 mmHg), when volume CMV was started. For each horse, the EIT signal was recorded for at least 2 minutes immediately before (T1), and at 30 (n = 3) or 60 (n = 1) minutes after the start of CMV (T2). The centre of ventilation (CoV), dependent silent spaces (DSS) (likely to represent atelectatic lung areas), non-dependent silent spaces (NSS) (likely to represent lung areas with low ventilation) and total ventilated area (TVA) were evaluated. Cardiac output (CO) was measured and venous admixture and oxygen delivery (DO2 ) were calculated at T1 and T2. Data are presented as median and range. RESULTS: After the initiation of CMV, the CoV moved ventrally towards the non-dependent lung by 10% [from 57.4% (49.6-60.2%) to 48.3% (41.9-54.4%)]. DSS increased [from 4.1% (0.2-13.9%) to 18.7% (7.5-27.5%)], while NSS [21.7% (9.4-29.2%) to 9.9% (1.0-20.7%)] and TVA [920 (699-1051) to 837 (662-961) pixels] decreased. CO, venous admixture and DO2 also decreased. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: In spontaneously breathing anaesthetized horses in dorsal recumbency, ventilation was essentially centred within the dependent dorsal lung regions and moved towards non-dependent ventral regions as soon as CMV was started. This shows a major lack of ventilation in the dependent lung, which may be indicative of atelectasis.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:05 Vetsuisse Faculty > Veterinary Clinic > Equine Department
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
630 Agriculture
Language:English
Date:2017
Deposited On:08 Aug 2016 12:46
Last Modified:25 Apr 2017 01:00
Publisher:Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Inc.
ISSN:1467-2987
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1111/vaa.12405
PubMed ID:27483208

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