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Evolution of opercle bone shape along a macrohabitat gradient: species identification using mtDNA and geometric morphometric analyses in neotropical sea catfishes (Ariidae)


Stange, Madlen; Aguirre-Fernández, Gabriel; Cooke, Richard G; Barros, Tito; Salzburger, Walter; Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R (2016). Evolution of opercle bone shape along a macrohabitat gradient: species identification using mtDNA and geometric morphometric analyses in neotropical sea catfishes (Ariidae). Ecology and Evolution, 6(16):5817-5830.

Abstract

Transitions between the marine and freshwater macrohabitat have occurred repeatedly in the evolution of teleost fishes. For example, ariid catfishes have moved from freshwater to marine environments, and vice versa. Opercles, a skeletal feature that has been shown to change during such transitions, were subjected to 2D geometric morphometric analyses in order to investigate evolutionary shape changes during habitat transition in ariid catfishes and to test the influence of habitat on shape changes. A mtDNA marker, which proved useful in previous studies, was used to verify species identities. It greatly improved the assignment of specimens to a species, which are difficult to assign by morphology alone. The application of a mtDNA marker confirmed the occurrence of Notarius biffi in Central America, South of El Salvador. Molecular identification together with principal component analysis (PCA) and further morphological inspection of neurocrania indicated the existence of a cryptic species within Bagre pinnimaculatus. Principal component (PC) scores of individual specimens clustered in morphospace by genus rather than by habitat. Strong phylogenetic structure was detected using a permutation test of PC scores of species means on a phylogenetic tree. Calculation of Pagel's λ suggested that opercle shape evolved according to a Brownian model of evolution. Yet canonical variate analysis (CVA) conducted on the habitat groups showed significant differences in opercle shapes among freshwater and marine species. Overall, opercle shape in tropical American Ariidae appears to be phylogenetically constrained. This verifies the application of opercle shape as a taxonomic tool for species identification in fossil ariid catfishes. At the same time, adaptation to freshwater habitats shows characteristic opercle shape trajectories in ariid catfishes, which might be used to detect habitat preferences in fossils.

Abstract

Transitions between the marine and freshwater macrohabitat have occurred repeatedly in the evolution of teleost fishes. For example, ariid catfishes have moved from freshwater to marine environments, and vice versa. Opercles, a skeletal feature that has been shown to change during such transitions, were subjected to 2D geometric morphometric analyses in order to investigate evolutionary shape changes during habitat transition in ariid catfishes and to test the influence of habitat on shape changes. A mtDNA marker, which proved useful in previous studies, was used to verify species identities. It greatly improved the assignment of specimens to a species, which are difficult to assign by morphology alone. The application of a mtDNA marker confirmed the occurrence of Notarius biffi in Central America, South of El Salvador. Molecular identification together with principal component analysis (PCA) and further morphological inspection of neurocrania indicated the existence of a cryptic species within Bagre pinnimaculatus. Principal component (PC) scores of individual specimens clustered in morphospace by genus rather than by habitat. Strong phylogenetic structure was detected using a permutation test of PC scores of species means on a phylogenetic tree. Calculation of Pagel's λ suggested that opercle shape evolved according to a Brownian model of evolution. Yet canonical variate analysis (CVA) conducted on the habitat groups showed significant differences in opercle shapes among freshwater and marine species. Overall, opercle shape in tropical American Ariidae appears to be phylogenetically constrained. This verifies the application of opercle shape as a taxonomic tool for species identification in fossil ariid catfishes. At the same time, adaptation to freshwater habitats shows characteristic opercle shape trajectories in ariid catfishes, which might be used to detect habitat preferences in fossils.

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Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:07 Faculty of Science > Paleontological Institute and Museum
Dewey Decimal Classification:560 Fossils & prehistoric life
Language:English
Date:29 July 2016
Deposited On:06 Sep 2016 12:40
Last Modified:08 Dec 2017 20:18
Publisher:Wiley Open Access
ISSN:2045-7758
Free access at:PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.2334
PubMed ID:27547357

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