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Intra-operative events during cardiac surgery are risk factors for the development of delirium in the ICU


Rudiger, Alain; Begdeda, Hülya; Babic, Daniela; Krüger, Bernard; Seifert, Burkhardt; Schubert, Maria; Spahn, Donat R; Bettex, Dominique (2016). Intra-operative events during cardiac surgery are risk factors for the development of delirium in the ICU. Critical Care, 20:264.

Abstract

BACKGROUND Risk factors for delirium following cardiac surgery are incompletely understood. The aim of this study was to investigate whether intra-operative pathophysiological alterations and therapeutic interventions influence the risk of post-operative delirium. METHODS This retrospective cohort study was performed in a 12-bed cardiosurgical intensive care unit (ICU) of a university hospital and included patients consecutively admitted after cardiac surgery during a 2-month period. The diagnosis of delirium was made clinically using validated scores. Comparisons between patients with and without delirium were performed with non-parametric tests. Logistic regression was applied to identify independent risk factors. Results are given as number (percent) or median (range). RESULTS Of the 194 consecutive post-cardiac surgery patients, 50 (26 %) developed delirium during their ICU stay. Univariate analysis revealed that significant differences between patients with and without delirium occurred in the following intra-operative variables: duration of cardiopulmonary bypass (184 [72-299] vs 113 (37-717) minutes, p < 0.001), lowest mean arterial pressure (50 [30-70] vs 55 [30-75] mmHg, p = 0.004), lowest haemoglobin level (85 [56-133] vs 98 [53-150] g/L, p = 0.005), lowest body temperature (34.5 [24.4-37.2] vs 35.1 [23.9-37.2] °C, p = 0.035), highest noradrenaline support (0.11 [0.00-0.69] vs 0.07 [0.00-0.42] μg/kg/minute, p = 0.001), and frequency of red blood cell transfusions (18 [36 %] vs 26 [18 %], p = 0.018) and platelet transfusions (23 [46 %] vs 24 [17 %], p < 0.001). Only platelet transfusions remained an independent risk factor in the multivariate analysis (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS In patients undergoing cardiac surgery, various intra-operative events, such as transfusion of platelets, were risk factors for the development of a post-operative delirium in the ICU. Further research is needed to unravel the underlying mechanisms.

Abstract

BACKGROUND Risk factors for delirium following cardiac surgery are incompletely understood. The aim of this study was to investigate whether intra-operative pathophysiological alterations and therapeutic interventions influence the risk of post-operative delirium. METHODS This retrospective cohort study was performed in a 12-bed cardiosurgical intensive care unit (ICU) of a university hospital and included patients consecutively admitted after cardiac surgery during a 2-month period. The diagnosis of delirium was made clinically using validated scores. Comparisons between patients with and without delirium were performed with non-parametric tests. Logistic regression was applied to identify independent risk factors. Results are given as number (percent) or median (range). RESULTS Of the 194 consecutive post-cardiac surgery patients, 50 (26 %) developed delirium during their ICU stay. Univariate analysis revealed that significant differences between patients with and without delirium occurred in the following intra-operative variables: duration of cardiopulmonary bypass (184 [72-299] vs 113 (37-717) minutes, p < 0.001), lowest mean arterial pressure (50 [30-70] vs 55 [30-75] mmHg, p = 0.004), lowest haemoglobin level (85 [56-133] vs 98 [53-150] g/L, p = 0.005), lowest body temperature (34.5 [24.4-37.2] vs 35.1 [23.9-37.2] °C, p = 0.035), highest noradrenaline support (0.11 [0.00-0.69] vs 0.07 [0.00-0.42] μg/kg/minute, p = 0.001), and frequency of red blood cell transfusions (18 [36 %] vs 26 [18 %], p = 0.018) and platelet transfusions (23 [46 %] vs 24 [17 %], p < 0.001). Only platelet transfusions remained an independent risk factor in the multivariate analysis (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS In patients undergoing cardiac surgery, various intra-operative events, such as transfusion of platelets, were risk factors for the development of a post-operative delirium in the ICU. Further research is needed to unravel the underlying mechanisms.

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Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Prevention Institute (EBPI)
04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Institute of Anesthesiology
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:21 August 2016
Deposited On:07 Sep 2016 12:12
Last Modified:08 Dec 2017 20:19
Publisher:BioMed Central
ISSN:1364-8535
Free access at:PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1186/s13054-016-1445-8
PubMed ID:27544077

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