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Sleep physiology in toddlers: Effects of missing a nap on subsequent night sleep


Lassonde, Jonathan M; Rusterholz, Thomas; Kurth, Salome; Schumacher, Allyson M; Achermann, Peter; LeBourgeois, Monique K (2016). Sleep physiology in toddlers: Effects of missing a nap on subsequent night sleep. Neurobiology of Sleep and Circadian Rhythms, 1(1):19-26.

Abstract

The shift from a biphasictoamonophasic sleep schedule is a fundamental milestone in early childhood. This transition, however, may result in periods of acute sleeploss as children may nap on some but not all days. Although data indicating the behavioral consequences of nap deprivation in young children are accumulating, little is known about changes to sleep neurophysiology following daytime sleeploss.This study addresses this gap in knowledge by examining the effects of acute nap deprivation on subsequent nighttime sleep electroencephalographic (EEG) parameters in toddlers. Healthy children (n¼25; 11 males; ages 30–36 months) followed a strict sleep schedule for Z5 days before sleep EEG recordings performed on 2 non-consecutive days: one after 13h of prior wakefulness and another at the same clock time but preceded by a daytime nap.Total slow-wave energy(SWE) was computed as cumulative slow-wave activity (SWA; EEG power in 0.75–4.5 Hz range) overtime.Nap and subsequent night SWE were added and compared to SWE of the night after a missed nap. During the night following a missed nap, children fell asleep faster (11.978.7 min versus 37.3722.1 min; d¼1.6, p¼0.01), sleptlonger (10.170.7h versus 9.670.6 h; d¼0.7, po 0.01) and exhibited greater SWA (133.3737.5% versus 93.074.7%;d¼0.9, po 0.01) compared to a night after a daytime nap. SWE for combined nap and subsequen tnight sleep did not significantly differ from the night following nap deprivation (12141.173872.9 μV²*h versus 11,58873270.8 μV²*h; d¼0.6, p¼0.12). However, compared to a night following a missed nap, children experienced greater time in bed (13.070.8 h versus 10.970.5 h; d¼3.1, po 0.01) and total sleep time (11.270.8 h versus10.170.7 h; d¼1.4, po0.01). Shorter sleep latency, longer sleep duration,and in-creased SWA in the night following a missed nap indicate that toddlers experience a physiologically meaningful homeostatic challenge after prolonged wakefulness. Whether toddlers fully recover from missing a daytime nap in the subsequent night necessitates further examination of daytime functioning.

Abstract

The shift from a biphasictoamonophasic sleep schedule is a fundamental milestone in early childhood. This transition, however, may result in periods of acute sleeploss as children may nap on some but not all days. Although data indicating the behavioral consequences of nap deprivation in young children are accumulating, little is known about changes to sleep neurophysiology following daytime sleeploss.This study addresses this gap in knowledge by examining the effects of acute nap deprivation on subsequent nighttime sleep electroencephalographic (EEG) parameters in toddlers. Healthy children (n¼25; 11 males; ages 30–36 months) followed a strict sleep schedule for Z5 days before sleep EEG recordings performed on 2 non-consecutive days: one after 13h of prior wakefulness and another at the same clock time but preceded by a daytime nap.Total slow-wave energy(SWE) was computed as cumulative slow-wave activity (SWA; EEG power in 0.75–4.5 Hz range) overtime.Nap and subsequent night SWE were added and compared to SWE of the night after a missed nap. During the night following a missed nap, children fell asleep faster (11.978.7 min versus 37.3722.1 min; d¼1.6, p¼0.01), sleptlonger (10.170.7h versus 9.670.6 h; d¼0.7, po 0.01) and exhibited greater SWA (133.3737.5% versus 93.074.7%;d¼0.9, po 0.01) compared to a night after a daytime nap. SWE for combined nap and subsequen tnight sleep did not significantly differ from the night following nap deprivation (12141.173872.9 μV²*h versus 11,58873270.8 μV²*h; d¼0.6, p¼0.12). However, compared to a night following a missed nap, children experienced greater time in bed (13.070.8 h versus 10.970.5 h; d¼3.1, po 0.01) and total sleep time (11.270.8 h versus10.170.7 h; d¼1.4, po0.01). Shorter sleep latency, longer sleep duration,and in-creased SWA in the night following a missed nap indicate that toddlers experience a physiologically meaningful homeostatic challenge after prolonged wakefulness. Whether toddlers fully recover from missing a daytime nap in the subsequent night necessitates further examination of daytime functioning.

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Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology
07 Faculty of Science > Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:2016
Deposited On:07 Nov 2016 11:08
Last Modified:10 Aug 2017 11:31
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:2451-9944
Free access at:PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nbscr.2016.08.001
PubMed ID:27812555

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