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Prediction of Bladder Outcomes after Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury: A Longitudinal Cohort Study


Pavese, Chiara; Schneider, Marc P; Schubert, Martin; Curt, Armin; Scivoletto, Giorgio; Finazzi-Agrò, Enrico; Mehnert, Ulrich; Maier, Doris; Abel, Rainer; Röhrich, Frank; Weidner, Norbert; Rupp, Rüdiger; Kessels, Alfons G; Bachmann, Lucas M; Kessler, Thomas M (2016). Prediction of Bladder Outcomes after Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury: A Longitudinal Cohort Study. PLoS Medicine, 13(6):e1002041.

Abstract

BACKGROUND Neurogenic bladder dysfunction represents one of the most common and devastating sequelae of traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). As early prediction of bladder outcomes is essential to counsel patients and to plan neurourological management, we aimed to develop and validate a model to predict urinary continence and complete bladder emptying 1 y after traumatic SCI. METHODS AND FINDINGS Using multivariate logistic regression analysis from the data of 1,250 patients with traumatic SCI included in the European Multicenter Spinal Cord Injury study, we developed two prediction models of urinary continence and complete bladder emptying 1 y after traumatic SCI and performed an external validation in 111 patients. As predictors, we evaluated age, gender, and all variables of the International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) and of the Spinal Cord Independence Measure (SCIM). Urinary continence and complete bladder emptying 1 y after SCI were assessed through item 6 of SCIM. The full model relies on lower extremity motor score (LEMS), light-touch sensation in the S3 dermatome of ISNCSI, and SCIM subscale respiration and sphincter management: the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (aROC) was 0.936 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.922-0.951). The simplified model is based on LEMS only: the aROC was 0.912 (95% CI: 0.895-0.930). External validation of the full and simplified models confirmed the excellent predictive power: the aROCs were 0.965 (95% CI: 0.934-0.996) and 0.972 (95% CI 0.943-0.999), respectively. This study is limited by the substantial number of patients with a missing 1-y outcome and by differences between derivation and validation cohort. CONCLUSIONS Our study provides two simple and reliable models to predict urinary continence and complete bladder emptying 1 y after traumatic SCI. Early prediction of bladder function might optimize counselling and patient-tailored rehabilitative interventions and improve patient stratification in future clinical trials.

Abstract

BACKGROUND Neurogenic bladder dysfunction represents one of the most common and devastating sequelae of traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). As early prediction of bladder outcomes is essential to counsel patients and to plan neurourological management, we aimed to develop and validate a model to predict urinary continence and complete bladder emptying 1 y after traumatic SCI. METHODS AND FINDINGS Using multivariate logistic regression analysis from the data of 1,250 patients with traumatic SCI included in the European Multicenter Spinal Cord Injury study, we developed two prediction models of urinary continence and complete bladder emptying 1 y after traumatic SCI and performed an external validation in 111 patients. As predictors, we evaluated age, gender, and all variables of the International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) and of the Spinal Cord Independence Measure (SCIM). Urinary continence and complete bladder emptying 1 y after SCI were assessed through item 6 of SCIM. The full model relies on lower extremity motor score (LEMS), light-touch sensation in the S3 dermatome of ISNCSI, and SCIM subscale respiration and sphincter management: the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (aROC) was 0.936 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.922-0.951). The simplified model is based on LEMS only: the aROC was 0.912 (95% CI: 0.895-0.930). External validation of the full and simplified models confirmed the excellent predictive power: the aROCs were 0.965 (95% CI: 0.934-0.996) and 0.972 (95% CI 0.943-0.999), respectively. This study is limited by the substantial number of patients with a missing 1-y outcome and by differences between derivation and validation cohort. CONCLUSIONS Our study provides two simple and reliable models to predict urinary continence and complete bladder emptying 1 y after traumatic SCI. Early prediction of bladder function might optimize counselling and patient-tailored rehabilitative interventions and improve patient stratification in future clinical trials.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Balgrist University Hospital, Swiss Spinal Cord Injury Center
04 Faculty of Medicine > Brain Research Institute
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:June 2016
Deposited On:11 Nov 2016 12:45
Last Modified:06 Aug 2017 03:58
Publisher:Public Library of Science (PLoS)
ISSN:1549-1277
Free access at:PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1002041
PubMed ID:27327967

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