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How to conduct multimethod field studies in the operating room: the iPad combined with a survey app as a valid and reliable data collection tool


Tscholl, David W; Weiss, Mona; Spahn, Donat R; Noethiger, Christoph B (2016). How to conduct multimethod field studies in the operating room: the iPad combined with a survey app as a valid and reliable data collection tool. JMIR research protocols, 5(1):e4.

Abstract

BACKGROUND Tablet computers such as the Apple iPad are progressively replacing traditional paper-and-pencil-based data collection. We combined the iPad with the ready-to-use survey software, iSurvey (from Harvestyourdata), to create a straightforward tool for data collection during the Anesthesia Pre-Induction Checklist (APIC) study, a hospital-wide multimethod intervention study involving observation of team performance and team member surveys in the operating room (OR). OBJECTIVE We aimed to provide an analysis of the factors that led to the use of the iPad- and iSurvey-based tool for data collection, illustrate our experiences with the use of this data collection tool, and report the results of an expert survey about user experience with this tool. METHODS We used an iPad- and iSurvey-based tool to observe anesthesia inductions conducted by 205 teams (N=557 team members) in the OR. In Phase 1, expert raters used the iPad- and iSurvey-based tool to rate team performance during anesthesia inductions, and anesthesia team members were asked to indicate their perceptions after the inductions. In Phase 2, we surveyed the expert raters about their perceptions regarding the use of the iPad- and iSurvey-based tool to observe, rate, and survey teams in the ORs. RESULTS The results of Phase 1 showed that training data collectors on the iPad- and iSurvey-based data collection tool was effortless and there were no serious problems during data collection, upload, download, and export. Interrater agreement of the combined data collection tool was found to be very high for the team observations (median Fleiss' kappa=0.88, 95% CI 0.78-1.00). The results of the follow-up expert rater survey (Phase 2) showed that the raters did not prefer a paper-and-pencil-based data collection method they had used during other earlier studies over the iPad- and iSurvey-based tool (median response 1, IQR 1-1; 1=do not agree, 2=somewhat disagree, 3=neutral, 4=somewhat agree, 5=fully agree). They found the iPad (median 5, IQR 4.5-5) and iSurvey (median 4, IQR 4-5) to be working flawlessly and easy to use (median 5, IQR 4-5). Expert ratings also showed that the anesthesia team members (ie, the surveyed doctors and nurses) who used the iPad- and iSurvey-based tool in the OR liked it (median 4, IQR 3-4.5). CONCLUSIONS The combination of the iPad and iSurvey provides an efficient and unobtrusive method to observe teams in their natural environment in the OR and to survey team members immediately after completing their task (ie, anesthesia induction). The expert raters positively evaluated the use of the device and user perceptions. Considering these comprehensive results, we can recommend the use of the iPad- and iSurvey-based tool for studying team performance and team member perceptions in the OR.

Abstract

BACKGROUND Tablet computers such as the Apple iPad are progressively replacing traditional paper-and-pencil-based data collection. We combined the iPad with the ready-to-use survey software, iSurvey (from Harvestyourdata), to create a straightforward tool for data collection during the Anesthesia Pre-Induction Checklist (APIC) study, a hospital-wide multimethod intervention study involving observation of team performance and team member surveys in the operating room (OR). OBJECTIVE We aimed to provide an analysis of the factors that led to the use of the iPad- and iSurvey-based tool for data collection, illustrate our experiences with the use of this data collection tool, and report the results of an expert survey about user experience with this tool. METHODS We used an iPad- and iSurvey-based tool to observe anesthesia inductions conducted by 205 teams (N=557 team members) in the OR. In Phase 1, expert raters used the iPad- and iSurvey-based tool to rate team performance during anesthesia inductions, and anesthesia team members were asked to indicate their perceptions after the inductions. In Phase 2, we surveyed the expert raters about their perceptions regarding the use of the iPad- and iSurvey-based tool to observe, rate, and survey teams in the ORs. RESULTS The results of Phase 1 showed that training data collectors on the iPad- and iSurvey-based data collection tool was effortless and there were no serious problems during data collection, upload, download, and export. Interrater agreement of the combined data collection tool was found to be very high for the team observations (median Fleiss' kappa=0.88, 95% CI 0.78-1.00). The results of the follow-up expert rater survey (Phase 2) showed that the raters did not prefer a paper-and-pencil-based data collection method they had used during other earlier studies over the iPad- and iSurvey-based tool (median response 1, IQR 1-1; 1=do not agree, 2=somewhat disagree, 3=neutral, 4=somewhat agree, 5=fully agree). They found the iPad (median 5, IQR 4.5-5) and iSurvey (median 4, IQR 4-5) to be working flawlessly and easy to use (median 5, IQR 4-5). Expert ratings also showed that the anesthesia team members (ie, the surveyed doctors and nurses) who used the iPad- and iSurvey-based tool in the OR liked it (median 4, IQR 3-4.5). CONCLUSIONS The combination of the iPad and iSurvey provides an efficient and unobtrusive method to observe teams in their natural environment in the OR and to survey team members immediately after completing their task (ie, anesthesia induction). The expert raters positively evaluated the use of the device and user perceptions. Considering these comprehensive results, we can recommend the use of the iPad- and iSurvey-based tool for studying team performance and team member perceptions in the OR.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Institute of Anesthesiology
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:German
Date:5 January 2016
Deposited On:17 Nov 2016 11:28
Last Modified:04 Aug 2017 16:08
Publisher:JMIR Publications Inc.
ISSN:1929-0748
Free access at:PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.2196/resprot.4713
PubMed ID:26732090

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