Objective: The aim of this review was to investigate the effects of supplementation with arginine, mainly in combination with aspartate and/or other potentially ergogenic amino acids, on metabolism of substrates, endocrine parameters and performance in endurance and resistance athletes. Data sources: The database PUBMED was consulted, using the following keywords "arginine", "aspartate", "performance" and "metabolism". The references in these articles were scanned for further relevant publications. Study section: Studies with oral or intravenous administration of arginine and/or aspartate alone or in combination with other amino acids were selected. Data extraction: Studies with at least six subjects and utilising a placebo-controlled design were analysed. Data synthesis: Seven studies with the combination of arginine aspartate and evaluation of the effect on performance in athletes were found and evaluated. In addition, further studies with arginine and combination with other amino acids were found and analysed in the same manner. Conclusions: No effect on selected parameters of metabolism or the endocrine system have been shown after oral or intravenous arginine, arginine aspartate or other combinations with arginine and aspartate. Neither were there any ergogenic effects in trained athletes after oral or intravenous arginine use, either alone or in combination with aspartate and/or other potentially ergogenic amino acids.