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Two-photon absorbing phosphorescent metalloporphyrins: effects of π-extension and peripheral substitution


Esipova, Tatiana V; Rivera-Jacquez, Héctor J; Weber, Bruno; Masunov, Artëm E; Vinogradov, Sergei A (2016). Two-photon absorbing phosphorescent metalloporphyrins: effects of π-extension and peripheral substitution. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 138(48):15648-15662.

Abstract

The ability to form triplet excited states upon two-photon excitation is important for several applications of metalloporphyrins, including two-photon phosphorescence lifetime microscopy (2PLM) and two-photon photodynamic therapy (PDT). Here we analyzed one-photon (1P) and degenerate two-photon (2P) absorption properties of several phosphorescent Pt (II) porphyrins, focusing on the effects of aromatic π-extension and peripheral substitution on triplet emissivity and two-photon absorption (2PA). Our 2PA measurements for the first time made use of direct time-resolved detection of phosphorescence, having the ability to efficiently reject laser background through microsecond time gating. π-Extension of the porphyrin macrocycle by way of syn-fusion with two external aromatic fragments, such as in syn-dibenzo- (DBP) and syn-dinaphthoporphyrins (DNP), lowers the symmetry of the porphyrin skeleton. As a result, DBPs and DNPs exhibit stronger 2PA into the one-photon-allowed B (Soret) and Q states than fully symmetric (D4h) nonextended porphyrins. However, much more 2P-active states lie above the B state and cannot be accessed due to the interfering linear absorption. Alkoxycarbonyl groups (CO2R) in the benzo-rings dramatically enhance 2PA near the B state level. Time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations in combinations with the sum-over-states (SOS) formalism revealed that the enhancement is due to the stabilization of higher-lying 2P-active states, which are dominated by the excitations involving orbitals extending onto the carbonyl groups. Furthermore, calculations predicted even stronger stabilization of the 2P-allowed gerade-states in symmetric Pt octaalkoxycarbonyl-tetrabenzoporphyrins. Experiments confirmed that the 2PA cross-section of PtTBP(CO2Bu)8 near 810 nm reaches above 500 GM in spite of its completely centrosymmetric structure. Combined with exceptionally bright phosphorescence (ϕphos = 0.45), strong 2PA makes Pt(II) complexes of π-extended porphyrins a valuable class of chromophores for 2P applications. Another important advantage of these porphyrinoids is their compact size and easily scalable synthesis.

Abstract

The ability to form triplet excited states upon two-photon excitation is important for several applications of metalloporphyrins, including two-photon phosphorescence lifetime microscopy (2PLM) and two-photon photodynamic therapy (PDT). Here we analyzed one-photon (1P) and degenerate two-photon (2P) absorption properties of several phosphorescent Pt (II) porphyrins, focusing on the effects of aromatic π-extension and peripheral substitution on triplet emissivity and two-photon absorption (2PA). Our 2PA measurements for the first time made use of direct time-resolved detection of phosphorescence, having the ability to efficiently reject laser background through microsecond time gating. π-Extension of the porphyrin macrocycle by way of syn-fusion with two external aromatic fragments, such as in syn-dibenzo- (DBP) and syn-dinaphthoporphyrins (DNP), lowers the symmetry of the porphyrin skeleton. As a result, DBPs and DNPs exhibit stronger 2PA into the one-photon-allowed B (Soret) and Q states than fully symmetric (D4h) nonextended porphyrins. However, much more 2P-active states lie above the B state and cannot be accessed due to the interfering linear absorption. Alkoxycarbonyl groups (CO2R) in the benzo-rings dramatically enhance 2PA near the B state level. Time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations in combinations with the sum-over-states (SOS) formalism revealed that the enhancement is due to the stabilization of higher-lying 2P-active states, which are dominated by the excitations involving orbitals extending onto the carbonyl groups. Furthermore, calculations predicted even stronger stabilization of the 2P-allowed gerade-states in symmetric Pt octaalkoxycarbonyl-tetrabenzoporphyrins. Experiments confirmed that the 2PA cross-section of PtTBP(CO2Bu)8 near 810 nm reaches above 500 GM in spite of its completely centrosymmetric structure. Combined with exceptionally bright phosphorescence (ϕphos = 0.45), strong 2PA makes Pt(II) complexes of π-extended porphyrins a valuable class of chromophores for 2P applications. Another important advantage of these porphyrinoids is their compact size and easily scalable synthesis.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology
07 Faculty of Science > Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:2016
Deposited On:23 Jan 2017 13:55
Last Modified:02 Feb 2018 10:48
Publisher:American Chemical Society (ACS)
ISSN:0002-7863
OA Status:Closed
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1021/jacs.6b09157
PubMed ID:27934026

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