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Laboratory tests for diagnosing and monitoring canine leishmaniasis


Paltrinieri, S; Gradoni, L; Roura, X; Zatelli, A; Zini, Eric (2016). Laboratory tests for diagnosing and monitoring canine leishmaniasis. Veterinary Clinical Pathology, 45(4):552-578.

Abstract

Although several reviews on canine leishmaniasis have been published, none thoroughly described clinicopathologic abnormalities and their clinical usefulness. The aim of this review was to provide information concerning current diagnostic tests relevant for clinical pathologists and from a practical perspective. Specifically, in canine leishmaniasis, nonregenerative normocytic normochromic anemia, thrombocytopenia, or leukogram changes may be present. Clinical chemistry and urinalysis may indicate renal dysfunction (azotemia, decreased urine specific gravity, proteinuria) and an inflammatory/immune response (increased acute phase proteins [APP] or α2 - and/or γ-globulins). Although a potential gammopathy is usually polyclonal, it may also appear oligo- or monoclonal, especially in dogs coinfected by other vector-borne pathogens. When lesions are accessible to fine-needle aspiration (lymphoadenomegaly, nodular lesions, joint swelling), cytology is strongly advised, as the presence of Leishmania amastigotes in a pattern of pyogranulomatous inflammation or lymphoplasmacytic hyperplasia is diagnostic. If the cytologic pattern is inconclusive, the parasite should be identified by histology/immunohistochemistry or PCR on surgical biopsies. Alternatively, cytology and PCR may be performed on bone marrow samples where amastigotes, along with erythroid hypoplasia, myeloid hyperplasia, plasmacytosis, or secondary dysmyelopoiesis can be observed. Dogs with overt leishmaniasis generally have high antibody titers, while low titers predominate in immunologically resistant infected dogs or in exposed dogs with no parasite confirmation. Quantitative serology is recommended in clinically suspect dogs as high-titer antibodies titers may confirm the clinical diagnosis. In confirmed and treated dogs, renal function and inflammatory/immune response variables should be periodically monitored.

Abstract

Although several reviews on canine leishmaniasis have been published, none thoroughly described clinicopathologic abnormalities and their clinical usefulness. The aim of this review was to provide information concerning current diagnostic tests relevant for clinical pathologists and from a practical perspective. Specifically, in canine leishmaniasis, nonregenerative normocytic normochromic anemia, thrombocytopenia, or leukogram changes may be present. Clinical chemistry and urinalysis may indicate renal dysfunction (azotemia, decreased urine specific gravity, proteinuria) and an inflammatory/immune response (increased acute phase proteins [APP] or α2 - and/or γ-globulins). Although a potential gammopathy is usually polyclonal, it may also appear oligo- or monoclonal, especially in dogs coinfected by other vector-borne pathogens. When lesions are accessible to fine-needle aspiration (lymphoadenomegaly, nodular lesions, joint swelling), cytology is strongly advised, as the presence of Leishmania amastigotes in a pattern of pyogranulomatous inflammation or lymphoplasmacytic hyperplasia is diagnostic. If the cytologic pattern is inconclusive, the parasite should be identified by histology/immunohistochemistry or PCR on surgical biopsies. Alternatively, cytology and PCR may be performed on bone marrow samples where amastigotes, along with erythroid hypoplasia, myeloid hyperplasia, plasmacytosis, or secondary dysmyelopoiesis can be observed. Dogs with overt leishmaniasis generally have high antibody titers, while low titers predominate in immunologically resistant infected dogs or in exposed dogs with no parasite confirmation. Quantitative serology is recommended in clinically suspect dogs as high-titer antibodies titers may confirm the clinical diagnosis. In confirmed and treated dogs, renal function and inflammatory/immune response variables should be periodically monitored.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:05 Vetsuisse Faculty > Veterinary Clinic > Department of Small Animals
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
630 Agriculture
Uncontrolled Keywords:Leishmania infantum ; Clinical usefulness; diagnosis; dog; follow-up
Language:English
Date:2 November 2016
Deposited On:14 Dec 2016 10:12
Last Modified:22 Feb 2017 02:01
Publisher:Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Inc.
ISSN:0275-6382
Additional Information:For accepted manuscripts: This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: Vet Clin Pathol. 2016 Nov 2.[Epub ahead of print] Laboratory tests for diagnosing and monitoring canine leishmaniasis. Paltrinieri S, Gradoni L, Roura X, Zatelli A, Zini E, which has been published in final form at DOI:10.1111/vcp.12413. This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Self-Archiving (http://olabout.wiley.com/WileyCDA/Section/id-820227.html#terms)
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1111/vcp.12413
PubMed ID:27805725

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