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Evaluation of the computed tomographic sentinel clot sign to identify bleeding abdominal organs in dogs with hemoabdomen


Specchi, S; Auriemma, E; Morabito, S; Ferri, F; Zini, E; Piola, V; Pey, P; Rossi, F (2017). Evaluation of the computed tomographic sentinel clot sign to identify bleeding abdominal organs in dogs with hemoabdomen. Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound, 58(1):18-22.

Abstract

The CT "sentinel clot sign" has been defined as the highest attenuation hematoma adjacent to a bleeding organ in humans with hemoabdomen. The aims of this retrospective descriptive multicenter study were to describe CT findings in a sample of dogs with surgically or necropsy confirmed intra-abdominal bleeding and determine prevalence of the "sentinel clot sign" adjacent to the location of bleeding. Medical records between 2012 and 2014 were searched for dogs with hemoabdomen and in which the origin of the bleeding was confirmed either with surgery or necropsy. Retrieved CT images were reviewed for the presence and localization of the "sentinel clot sign," HU measurements of the "sentinel clot sign" and hemoabdomen, and presence of extravasation of contrast media within the abdominal cavity. Nineteen dogs were included. Three dogs were excluded due to the low amount of blood that did not allow the identification of a "sentinel clot sign." A "sentinel clot sign" was detected in the proximity of the confirmed bleeding organ in 14/16 (88%) of the patients. The mean HU of the "sentinel clot sign" was 56 (range: 43-70) while that of the hemoabdomen was 34 (range: 20-45). Active hemorrhage was identified as extravasation of contrast medium within the peritoneal cavity from the bleeding organ in three dogs. In conclusion, the CT "sentinel clot sign" may be helpful for identifying the source of bleeding in dogs with hemoabdomen.

Abstract

The CT "sentinel clot sign" has been defined as the highest attenuation hematoma adjacent to a bleeding organ in humans with hemoabdomen. The aims of this retrospective descriptive multicenter study were to describe CT findings in a sample of dogs with surgically or necropsy confirmed intra-abdominal bleeding and determine prevalence of the "sentinel clot sign" adjacent to the location of bleeding. Medical records between 2012 and 2014 were searched for dogs with hemoabdomen and in which the origin of the bleeding was confirmed either with surgery or necropsy. Retrieved CT images were reviewed for the presence and localization of the "sentinel clot sign," HU measurements of the "sentinel clot sign" and hemoabdomen, and presence of extravasation of contrast media within the abdominal cavity. Nineteen dogs were included. Three dogs were excluded due to the low amount of blood that did not allow the identification of a "sentinel clot sign." A "sentinel clot sign" was detected in the proximity of the confirmed bleeding organ in 14/16 (88%) of the patients. The mean HU of the "sentinel clot sign" was 56 (range: 43-70) while that of the hemoabdomen was 34 (range: 20-45). Active hemorrhage was identified as extravasation of contrast medium within the peritoneal cavity from the bleeding organ in three dogs. In conclusion, the CT "sentinel clot sign" may be helpful for identifying the source of bleeding in dogs with hemoabdomen.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:05 Vetsuisse Faculty > Veterinary Clinic > Department of Small Animals
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
630 Agriculture
Language:English
Date:2017
Deposited On:21 Dec 2016 16:37
Last Modified:22 Feb 2017 02:01
Publisher:Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Inc.
ISSN:1058-8183
Additional Information:This is the peer reviewed version of the following article:Specchi, S., Auriemma, E., Morabito, S., Ferri, F., Zini, E., Piola, V., Pey, P. and Rossi, F. (2016), EVALUATION OF THE COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHIC “SENTINEL CLOT SIGN” TO IDENTIFY BLEEDING ABDOMINAL ORGANS IN DOGS WITH HEMOABDOMEN. Vet Radiol Ultrasound. doi:10.1111/vru.12439, which has been published in final form at doi:10.1111/vru.12439. This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Self-Archiving (http://olabout.wiley.com/WileyCDA/Section/id-820227.html#terms).
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1111/vru.12439
PubMed ID:27790793

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