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The impact of mild induced hypothermia on the rate of transfusion and the mortality in severely injured patients: a retrospective multi-centre study


Jensen, Kai Oliver; Held, Leonhard; Kraus, Andrea; Hildebrand, Frank; Mommsen, Philipp; Mica, Ladislav; Wanner, Guido A; Steiger, Peter; Moos, Rudolf M; Simmen, Hans-Peter; Sprengel, Kai (2016). The impact of mild induced hypothermia on the rate of transfusion and the mortality in severely injured patients: a retrospective multi-centre study. European Journal of Medical Research, 21(1):online.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Although under discussion, induced hypothermia (IH) is an established therapy for patients with cardiac arrest or traumatic brain injuries. The influences on coagulopathy and bleeding tendency in severely injured patients (SIP) with concomitant traumatic brain injury are most widely unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to quantify the effect of mild IH in SIP with concomitant severe traumatic brain injuries on transfusion rate and mortality.
METHODS: In this retrospective multi-centre study, SIP from three European level-1 trauma centres with an ISS ≥16 between 2009 and 2011 were included. At hospital A, patients qualified for IH with age ≤70 years and a severe head injury with an abbreviated injury scale (AISHead) of ≥3. IH was defined as target core body temperature of 35 °C. Hypothermic patients were matched with two patients, one from hospital B and one from hospital C using age and AISHead. The effect of IH on the transfusion rate, complications and mortality was quantified with 95 % confidence intervals (CI). Patients not treated with IH in hospital A and those from hospital B and C, who were not matched, were used to adjust the CI for the effect of inter-hospital therapy protocol differences.
RESULTS: Mean age of patients in the IH-group (n = 43) was 35.7 years, mean ISS 30 points and sex distribution showed 83.7 % male. Mean age of matched patients in the normotherm-group (n = 86) was 36.7 years, mean ISS 33 points and there were 75.6 % males. For the hypothermic patients, we pointed out an estimate of mean difference for the number of transfused units of packed red blood cells as well as for mortality which does not indicate a decrease in the benefit gained by hypothermia. It is suggested that hypothermic patients tend to a higher rate of lung failure and thromboembolisms.
CONCLUSION: Though tending to an increased rate of complications, there is no evidence for a difference in both; rate of transfusion and mortality in SIP. Mild IH as an option for severe head injuries seems as well-being practicable in the presence of multiple severe injuries. Further, clinical studies regarding the side effects are necessary.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Although under discussion, induced hypothermia (IH) is an established therapy for patients with cardiac arrest or traumatic brain injuries. The influences on coagulopathy and bleeding tendency in severely injured patients (SIP) with concomitant traumatic brain injury are most widely unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to quantify the effect of mild IH in SIP with concomitant severe traumatic brain injuries on transfusion rate and mortality.
METHODS: In this retrospective multi-centre study, SIP from three European level-1 trauma centres with an ISS ≥16 between 2009 and 2011 were included. At hospital A, patients qualified for IH with age ≤70 years and a severe head injury with an abbreviated injury scale (AISHead) of ≥3. IH was defined as target core body temperature of 35 °C. Hypothermic patients were matched with two patients, one from hospital B and one from hospital C using age and AISHead. The effect of IH on the transfusion rate, complications and mortality was quantified with 95 % confidence intervals (CI). Patients not treated with IH in hospital A and those from hospital B and C, who were not matched, were used to adjust the CI for the effect of inter-hospital therapy protocol differences.
RESULTS: Mean age of patients in the IH-group (n = 43) was 35.7 years, mean ISS 30 points and sex distribution showed 83.7 % male. Mean age of matched patients in the normotherm-group (n = 86) was 36.7 years, mean ISS 33 points and there were 75.6 % males. For the hypothermic patients, we pointed out an estimate of mean difference for the number of transfused units of packed red blood cells as well as for mortality which does not indicate a decrease in the benefit gained by hypothermia. It is suggested that hypothermic patients tend to a higher rate of lung failure and thromboembolisms.
CONCLUSION: Though tending to an increased rate of complications, there is no evidence for a difference in both; rate of transfusion and mortality in SIP. Mild IH as an option for severe head injuries seems as well-being practicable in the presence of multiple severe injuries. Further, clinical studies regarding the side effects are necessary.

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Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Trauma Surgery
04 Faculty of Medicine > Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Prevention Institute (EBPI)
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:6 October 2016
Deposited On:29 Nov 2016 13:31
Last Modified:05 Aug 2017 01:43
Publisher:BioMed Central
ISSN:2047-783X
Free access at:PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1186/s40001-016-0233-x
PubMed ID:27716419

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