To determine the position, dimensions, and structure of the right kidney in cattle by use of ultrasonography, the right kidney of 11 healthy Brown Swiss cows was examined 10 times within 2 weeks. A 3.5- and 5.0-MHz linear and convex transducer was placed on the right side of the cow in the lumbar region, in the paralumbar fossa, and in the last intercostal space. The echogenicity of various renal structures differed. The lobulation of the kidney in cattle could be visualized ultrasonographically; however, the cortex and medulla could not be differentiated. The distance between body surface and the right kidney was almost 3 times larger (5.3 +/- 1.71 cm, mean +/- SD) in the lumbar region than in the paralumbar fossa (1.8 +/- 0.52 cm). The vertical diameter of the kidney was remarkably smaller (5.1 +/- 0.47 cm) than the horizontal diameter (9.4 +/- 0.98 cm). In 7 cows, the thickness of the renal cortex and medulla was between 1.9 and 2.1 cm. The medullary pyramids could be visualized when the transducer was placed in the paralumbar fossa. Fourteen of 19 variables measured had a coefficient of variation between 8 and 14%. It was concluded that the ultrasonographic values determined in this study can be used as references for the diagnosis of morphologic changes in the right kidney of domestic dairy cattle.