A new recombinant FeLV vaccine was evaluated in 30 specified pathogen-free cats 10 months of age cats. The vaccine consisted of the non-glycosylated FeLV envelope protein p45, aluminium hydroxide and a saponin adjuvant. The cats (n = 18) were vaccinated twice intramuscularly, 3 weeks apart. All animals were challenged intraperitoneally with FeLV subgroup A, 18 weeks later. While 94% of the vaccinated cats showed no viraemia or were only transiently viraemic, 80% of the non-vaccinated animals became persistently viraemic within 2 to 3 weeks. In our hands the preventable fraction of the vaccine was 93%. In order to determine the effect of a pre-existing infection with feline immunodeficiency virus on the efficacy of vaccination, 50% of the cats were previously infected with FIV. The infected cats were protected to the same degree as the non-infected animals. With prolonged duration of FIV infection the probability increases, that the immune system of the cat will fail and clinical signs will appear. In order to observe a state of possible immunodeficiency, an accurate clinical examination of every cat prior to vaccination seems of major importance.