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Recombinant FeLV vaccine: long-term protection and effect on course and outcome of FIV infection


Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Holznagel, Edgar; Aubert, Andre; Ossent, Pete; Reinacher, Manfred; Lutz, Hans (1995). Recombinant FeLV vaccine: long-term protection and effect on course and outcome of FIV infection. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology, 46(1-2):127-137.

Abstract

The efficacy and the long-term protection of a recombinant feline leukemia virus (FeLV) vaccine were determined in 30 specified pathogen free cats for over 3 years. At the same time, in order to specify the effects of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) on the immune system, one half of the cats (n = 15) were previously infected with the Swiss isolate FIV Zurich 2. The second half of the animals (n = 15) served as non-infected controls. Eighteen (nine FIV-negative, nine FIV-positive) vaccinated and 12 (six FIV-negative, six FIV-positive) non-vaccinated cats were intraperitoneally challenged with FeLV A. Seventeen of 18 vaccinated cats were protected against persistent viremia, while ten of 12 non-vaccinated controls became infected. An increase of antibodies against FeLV SU was found in all protected cats after the challenge exposure. No difference in vaccine efficacy was found between FIV-negative and FIV-positive animals. The whole group of cats was observed for over 3 years. There were no further vaccinations during this period. CD4+ and CD8+ cell subsets, clinical outcome and time of survival of the cats were recorded. FIV-negative and FIV-positive animals were kept in two different rooms. However, FeLV-negative and FeLV viremic cats were housed together in both rooms in order to imitate a natural FeLV exposure situation. Anti-recombinant FeLV SU antibodies were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Although a continuous decline of antibodies was found in FeLV vaccinated cats, they remained protected against constant FeLV challenge for over 3 years. FIV infection had a stronger effect on the depression of the CD4+:CD8+ ratio than FeLV infection. Within the group of FIV-positive cats, the FeLV-vaccinated animals had significantly better survival rates as well as better clinical and laboratory parameters. FIV- and FeLV-coinfected cats showed the lowest CD4+:CD8+ ratio, mainly caused by decreased CD4+ lymphocyte counts. CD8+ lymphocytes with strong fluorescence (CD8(high)) disappeared and cells with weak fluorescence (CD8(low)) appeared instead. Prevention of coinfection by immunizing FIV-positive cats against FeLV infection improved the clinical outcome and prolonged the cat's life expectancy.

Abstract

The efficacy and the long-term protection of a recombinant feline leukemia virus (FeLV) vaccine were determined in 30 specified pathogen free cats for over 3 years. At the same time, in order to specify the effects of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) on the immune system, one half of the cats (n = 15) were previously infected with the Swiss isolate FIV Zurich 2. The second half of the animals (n = 15) served as non-infected controls. Eighteen (nine FIV-negative, nine FIV-positive) vaccinated and 12 (six FIV-negative, six FIV-positive) non-vaccinated cats were intraperitoneally challenged with FeLV A. Seventeen of 18 vaccinated cats were protected against persistent viremia, while ten of 12 non-vaccinated controls became infected. An increase of antibodies against FeLV SU was found in all protected cats after the challenge exposure. No difference in vaccine efficacy was found between FIV-negative and FIV-positive animals. The whole group of cats was observed for over 3 years. There were no further vaccinations during this period. CD4+ and CD8+ cell subsets, clinical outcome and time of survival of the cats were recorded. FIV-negative and FIV-positive animals were kept in two different rooms. However, FeLV-negative and FeLV viremic cats were housed together in both rooms in order to imitate a natural FeLV exposure situation. Anti-recombinant FeLV SU antibodies were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Although a continuous decline of antibodies was found in FeLV vaccinated cats, they remained protected against constant FeLV challenge for over 3 years. FIV infection had a stronger effect on the depression of the CD4+:CD8+ ratio than FeLV infection. Within the group of FIV-positive cats, the FeLV-vaccinated animals had significantly better survival rates as well as better clinical and laboratory parameters. FIV- and FeLV-coinfected cats showed the lowest CD4+:CD8+ ratio, mainly caused by decreased CD4+ lymphocyte counts. CD8+ lymphocytes with strong fluorescence (CD8(high)) disappeared and cells with weak fluorescence (CD8(low)) appeared instead. Prevention of coinfection by immunizing FIV-positive cats against FeLV infection improved the clinical outcome and prolonged the cat's life expectancy.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:05 Vetsuisse Faculty > Institute of Veterinary Pathology
05 Vetsuisse Faculty > Veterinary Clinic > Department of Farm Animals
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
630 Agriculture
Language:English
Date:May 1995
Deposited On:23 Dec 2016 09:22
Last Modified:25 Dec 2016 06:29
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:0165-2427
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/0165-2427(94)07012-V
PubMed ID:7618252

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