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The use of semi-quantitative tests at Cesarean section delivery for the differentiation of canine fetal fluids from maternal urine on the basis of biochemical characteristics


Balogh, Orsolya; Roch, Marie; Keller, Stefanie; Michel, Erika; Reichler, Iris M (2017). The use of semi-quantitative tests at Cesarean section delivery for the differentiation of canine fetal fluids from maternal urine on the basis of biochemical characteristics. Theriogenology, 88:174-182.

Abstract

In dogs, there is no diagnostic test to identify and differentiate fetal fluids from maternal urine in the event that a clear-yellowish vulvar discharge is observed pre-whelping. The objective of this study was to find a test that could easily and accurately identify rupture of the fetal membranes preceding parturition. Maternal urine, and amniotic fluid (AMF) and allantoic fluid (ALF) from only one fetus per bitch, were collected intraoperatively during Cesarean section. Specific gravity (SG) was analyzed with a refractometer, whereas the presence of leukocytes, protein, glucose, ketones, bilirubin, urobilinogen, nitrite, erythrocyte/hemoglobin (Hb), and the pH were assessed using a urine dipstick (Combur-Test®). Combined calcium and magnesium (Ca/Mg) content were evaluated with the Total Hardness Test. The AmniSure test, which detects rupture of fetal membranes in women on the basis of the presence of human placental alpha microglobulin-1, was also performed on canine AMF, ALF, and urine. Data were analyzed using the Fisher's exact test, Wilcoxon signed-rank test, and Pearson's correlation. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative likelihood ratios (LR) were calculated for parameters with significant difference between urine and both fetal fluids. Maternal urine had higher SG and lower leukocyte, protein, Hb, and Ca/Mg content than AMF and ALF. Glucose was more often present in AMF (n = 17) and ALF (n = 12) than in urine (n = 1), whereas ketone bodies were rarely detected in ALF compared with urine. Bilirubin content was higher in urine and ALF than in AMF. AMF pH was less variable and higher than the pH of ALF or urine. The AmniSure was negative in all samples tested. Sensitivity and specificity for SG and for the detection of leukocytes, protein, glucose, Hb, Ca/Mg, and glucose without ketones in urine and fetal fluids were between 42% to 100% and 65% to 100%, respectively. Best positive LR was achieved for the detection of glucose without ketones and best negative LR for SG of 1.022 or less. In conclusion, the AmniSure test, which is used in humans with high diagnostic accuracy, cannot identify AMF and ALF in dogs. On the basis of our results in 26 dogs undergoing Cesarean section, the presence or absence of fetal fluids could be best determined by a positive glucose test without ketone bodies or by SG higher than 1.022, respectively. These tests may serve as additional tools to recognize parturition if clear-yellowish vulvar discharge is present in a term pregnant bitch, but their accuracy and practicability in the clinical setting need to be confirmed.

Abstract

In dogs, there is no diagnostic test to identify and differentiate fetal fluids from maternal urine in the event that a clear-yellowish vulvar discharge is observed pre-whelping. The objective of this study was to find a test that could easily and accurately identify rupture of the fetal membranes preceding parturition. Maternal urine, and amniotic fluid (AMF) and allantoic fluid (ALF) from only one fetus per bitch, were collected intraoperatively during Cesarean section. Specific gravity (SG) was analyzed with a refractometer, whereas the presence of leukocytes, protein, glucose, ketones, bilirubin, urobilinogen, nitrite, erythrocyte/hemoglobin (Hb), and the pH were assessed using a urine dipstick (Combur-Test®). Combined calcium and magnesium (Ca/Mg) content were evaluated with the Total Hardness Test. The AmniSure test, which detects rupture of fetal membranes in women on the basis of the presence of human placental alpha microglobulin-1, was also performed on canine AMF, ALF, and urine. Data were analyzed using the Fisher's exact test, Wilcoxon signed-rank test, and Pearson's correlation. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative likelihood ratios (LR) were calculated for parameters with significant difference between urine and both fetal fluids. Maternal urine had higher SG and lower leukocyte, protein, Hb, and Ca/Mg content than AMF and ALF. Glucose was more often present in AMF (n = 17) and ALF (n = 12) than in urine (n = 1), whereas ketone bodies were rarely detected in ALF compared with urine. Bilirubin content was higher in urine and ALF than in AMF. AMF pH was less variable and higher than the pH of ALF or urine. The AmniSure was negative in all samples tested. Sensitivity and specificity for SG and for the detection of leukocytes, protein, glucose, Hb, Ca/Mg, and glucose without ketones in urine and fetal fluids were between 42% to 100% and 65% to 100%, respectively. Best positive LR was achieved for the detection of glucose without ketones and best negative LR for SG of 1.022 or less. In conclusion, the AmniSure test, which is used in humans with high diagnostic accuracy, cannot identify AMF and ALF in dogs. On the basis of our results in 26 dogs undergoing Cesarean section, the presence or absence of fetal fluids could be best determined by a positive glucose test without ketone bodies or by SG higher than 1.022, respectively. These tests may serve as additional tools to recognize parturition if clear-yellowish vulvar discharge is present in a term pregnant bitch, but their accuracy and practicability in the clinical setting need to be confirmed.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:05 Vetsuisse Faculty > Veterinary Clinic > Department of Farm Animals
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
630 Agriculture
Uncontrolled Keywords:Allantois; Amnion; Dog; Parturition; Pregnancy
Language:English
Date:15 January 2017
Deposited On:17 Jan 2017 13:36
Last Modified:08 Dec 2017 21:47
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:0093-691X
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2016.09.024
PubMed ID:27746004

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