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Forces controlling organ growth and size


Eder, Dominik; Aegerter, Christof; Basler, Konrad (2017). Forces controlling organ growth and size. Mechanisms of development, 144:53-61.

Abstract

One of the fundamental questions in developmental biology is what determines the final size and shape of an organ. Recent research strongly emphasizes that besides cell-cell communication, biophysical principals govern organ development. The architecture and mechanics of a tissue guide cellular processes such as movement, growth or differentiation. Furthermore, mechanical cues do not only regulate processes at a cellular level but also provide constant feedback about size and shape on a tissue scale. Here we review several models and experimental systems which are contributing to our understanding of the roles mechanical forces play during organ development. One of the best understood processes is how the remodeling of bones is driven by mechanical load. Culture systems of single cells and of cellular monolayers provide further insights into the growth promoting capacity of mechanical cues. We focus on the Drosophila wing imaginal disc, a well-established model system for growth regulation. We discuss theoretical models that invoke mechanical feedback loops for growth regulation and experimental studies providing empirical support. Future progress in this exciting field will require the development of new tools to precisely measure and modify forces in living tissue systems.

Abstract

One of the fundamental questions in developmental biology is what determines the final size and shape of an organ. Recent research strongly emphasizes that besides cell-cell communication, biophysical principals govern organ development. The architecture and mechanics of a tissue guide cellular processes such as movement, growth or differentiation. Furthermore, mechanical cues do not only regulate processes at a cellular level but also provide constant feedback about size and shape on a tissue scale. Here we review several models and experimental systems which are contributing to our understanding of the roles mechanical forces play during organ development. One of the best understood processes is how the remodeling of bones is driven by mechanical load. Culture systems of single cells and of cellular monolayers provide further insights into the growth promoting capacity of mechanical cues. We focus on the Drosophila wing imaginal disc, a well-established model system for growth regulation. We discuss theoretical models that invoke mechanical feedback loops for growth regulation and experimental studies providing empirical support. Future progress in this exciting field will require the development of new tools to precisely measure and modify forces in living tissue systems.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, further contribution
Communities & Collections:07 Faculty of Science > Institute of Molecular Life Sciences
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
Language:English
Date:2017
Deposited On:09 Jan 2017 13:46
Last Modified:08 Dec 2017 21:52
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:0925-4773
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mod.2016.11.005
PubMed ID:27913118

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