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Evidence-Based Clinical Use of Nanoscale Extracellular Vesicles in Nanomedicine


Fais, Stefano; O'Driscoll, Lorraine; et al; Rajendran, Lawrence (2016). Evidence-Based Clinical Use of Nanoscale Extracellular Vesicles in Nanomedicine. ACS Nano, 10(4):3886-3899.

Abstract

Recent research has demonstrated that all body fluids assessed contain substantial amounts of vesicles that range in size from 30 to 1000 nm and that are surrounded by phospholipid membranes containing different membrane microdomains such as lipid rafts and caveolae. The most prominent representatives of these so-called extracellular vesicles (EVs) are nanosized exosomes (70-150 nm), which are derivatives of the endosomal system, and microvesicles (100-1000 nm), which are produced by outward budding of the plasma membrane. Nanosized EVs are released by almost all cell types and mediate targeted intercellular communication under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Containing cell-type-specific signatures, EVs have been proposed as biomarkers in a variety of diseases. Furthermore, according to their physical functions, EVs of selected cell types have been used as therapeutic agents in immune therapy, vaccination trials, regenerative medicine, and drug delivery. Undoubtedly, the rapidly emerging field of basic and applied EV research will significantly influence the biomedicinal landscape in the future. In this Perspective, we, a network of European scientists from clinical, academic, and industry settings collaborating through the H2020 European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) program European Network on Microvesicles and Exosomes in Health and Disease (ME-HAD), demonstrate the high potential of nanosized EVs for both diagnostic and therapeutic (i.e., theranostic) areas of nanomedicine.

Abstract

Recent research has demonstrated that all body fluids assessed contain substantial amounts of vesicles that range in size from 30 to 1000 nm and that are surrounded by phospholipid membranes containing different membrane microdomains such as lipid rafts and caveolae. The most prominent representatives of these so-called extracellular vesicles (EVs) are nanosized exosomes (70-150 nm), which are derivatives of the endosomal system, and microvesicles (100-1000 nm), which are produced by outward budding of the plasma membrane. Nanosized EVs are released by almost all cell types and mediate targeted intercellular communication under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Containing cell-type-specific signatures, EVs have been proposed as biomarkers in a variety of diseases. Furthermore, according to their physical functions, EVs of selected cell types have been used as therapeutic agents in immune therapy, vaccination trials, regenerative medicine, and drug delivery. Undoubtedly, the rapidly emerging field of basic and applied EV research will significantly influence the biomedicinal landscape in the future. In this Perspective, we, a network of European scientists from clinical, academic, and industry settings collaborating through the H2020 European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) program European Network on Microvesicles and Exosomes in Health and Disease (ME-HAD), demonstrate the high potential of nanosized EVs for both diagnostic and therapeutic (i.e., theranostic) areas of nanomedicine.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, further contribution
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Institute for Regenerative Medicine (IREM)
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:26 April 2016
Deposited On:04 Jan 2017 16:30
Last Modified:04 Jan 2017 16:33
Publisher:American Chemical Society (ACS)
ISSN:1936-0851
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.5b08015
PubMed ID:26978483

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