Climate change and the related adverse impacts are among the greatest challenges facing humankind during the coming decades. Even with a significant reduction of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, it will be inevitable for societies to adapt to new climatic conditions and associated impacts and risks. This book offers insights to first experiences of developing and implementing adaptation measures, with a particular focus on mountain environments and the adjacent downstream areas. It provides a comprehensive ‘state-of-the-art’ of climate change adaptation in these areas through the collection and evaluation of knowledge from several local and regional case studies and by offering new expertise and insights at the global level. As such, the book is an important source for scientists, practitioners and decision makers alike, who are working in the field of climate change adaptation and towards sustainable development in the sense of the Paris Agreement and the Agenda 2030.