Autophagy is a group of cellular pathways that deliver cytoplasmic constituents for lysosomal degradation. The peptides generated from these pathways can be presented by MHC II molecules, making autophagy an important source of antigens for CD4+ T cells. In addition, modules of the molecular machinery of autophagy were found in recent years to also influence extracellular antigen processing for MHC Class I and Class II presentation, as well as regulation of MHC Class I surface expression. These studies paint a more complicated picture of how regulation of individual autophagy proteins influences adaptive immunity. The respective pathways, especially in regard to their net outcome for CD4+ helper and CD8+ cytotoxic T cell responses in vivo, will be discussed in this review.